What belongs to a language are the rules for combining words to form acceptable phrases and sentences. - Wiki cuộc sống Việt (2023)

and- the word "the" is grammatically/technically "the indefinite article" (compared to the word "the" which is "the definite article") - p. eg "a bird fell from the sky" or "muddy children need a bath". This use of the word to derives from the Old English "an" which is a version of "one".

List of terms for grammatical, literary, linguistic, vocal and written purposes

and- the word "the" is grammatically/technically "the indefinite article" (compared to the word "the" which is "the definite article") - p. eg "a bird fell from the sky" or "muddy children need a bath". This use of the word to derives from the Old English "an" which is a version of "one".

AND- usually capitalized, 'A' is a common substitute word or 'placeholder name' used when, for example, the speaker/writer finds it easier not to use the actual word or words, and particularly in sentences like 'My car takes me from A to B", or "An eye for an eye is when person A hits person B and then person B hits person A", or "Ms A has been married 5 years; Mrs B was...'

and-– The letter “a” is a prefix with different meanings seen in different languages ​​at different stages of word development, including the meanings: “to”, “to”, “in”, “in”, “of” or to express intensity or to be in a state of...etc., e.g. walking, awake, cursed, side by side, ajar, announced, etc. Not all words beginning with "a" use the prefix "a" on this way.

What belongs to a language are the rules for combining words to form acceptable phrases and sentences. - Wiki cuộc sống Việt (1)

shortcut– an abbreviated word or phrase. This can be done through several methods, namely:

  • Using the first letters of a name or a multi-word sentence, e.g. B. BBC for British Broadcasting Corporation or SA for South Africa or ATM for ATM, TV for television, CD for compact disc; or LOL to laugh out loud, or SWALK to seal love with a kiss (the last two are technically acronyms too).
  • Omitting some or all of the vowels in the word or words, for example Rd for street, or St for street, or Holy, or Dr instead of Doctor, or Mr instead of Mister, or Sgt instead of Sergeant,
  • Omitting and/or substituting the letters that best allow the rest to convey the whole word, often also for euphonic reasons (i.e. the sound is pleasant to speak/hear), or phonetically clever (how it sounds), or visually clever – for example: bike for bike, or fridge for fridge, or stroller for stroller (hiking means walking, formal or playful), or barbecue for barbecue, or SFX for sound effects, and more recently, especially in electronic messages that use combinations of letters and numbers. , like L8 for late, GR8 for great, 2 means for/too, B4 for before, etc.
  • Drop the beginning of a word or words, for example phone by phone.
  • omit the end of a word or phrase; for example doc for doctor, amp for amplifier or ampere, artic for articulated or op for operation or zoo for zoo.
  • Combining parts of two words to form a new word, usually with a combined meaning, similar to a compound word, also called a root word, e.g. B. Brunch for breakfast and Smog for smoke and fog. Portmanteau words aren't usually considered abbreviations, but they certainly are.

Many abbreviations, after widespread and popular adoption, are listed in dictionaries as new words in their own right. The full original versions of many of these abbreviations are forgotten, so they are not generally considered abbreviations (e.g. the words zoo, taxi, telephone).

acronym- an existing or new word consisting of the first letters in the correct order of words in a sentence or series of words, e.g. B. NIMBY (Not In My Back-Yard) and SCUBA (Auto-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus). ) . Technically, an acronym must be either an actual word or a new "word" that can be pronounced; otherwise it is just an abbreviation. By definition, all acronyms are also abbreviations. Also technically, an acronym must be formed from the first letters of all words in the phrase or word order. Usually, the rules are distorted when acronyms are formed with the first and second letters (or more) of constituent words and/or when words like "to" and "the" and "of" are included in the phrase or series of words not to acronyms, for example LASER (Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation). An acronym that is backwards (i.e. its full meaning/interpretation relates directly or indirectly to the abbreviated form) is known as a bacronym, retroronym or reverse acronym, for example CRAP (Chronologically Ascending Random Stack) and DIARRHEA (Dash in a real) . running, hurrying or other accidents). See lots of useful and fun acronyms and acronyms.

What belongs to a language are the rules for combining words to form acceptable phrases and sentences. - Wiki cuộc sống Việt (2)

Akrostichon- a riddle or cryptic construct or message in which usually the first or last letter of lines of text, or possibly other single letters in each line, spells something vertically or, less often, diagonally, downwards or upwards. From French acrostic and Greek akrostichis and the root of the Greek words akro meaning end and stikhos meaning verse or verse. A notable and amusing example of the use of acrostic in cryptic news is the case of British journalist Stephen Pollard, who allegedly chronicled his feelings about Richard Desmond's takeover of his employer, the Daily Express, in 2001 by spelling out the words acrostically: " F * * * du Desmond', beginning with sentences in his latest newspaper article.

accent– Accent refers to a particular way of pronouncing words, languages ​​or letter sounds, generally resulting from regional and national linguistic or vernacular differences. For example "an Australian accent". Accent also refers to the types of diacritics that are placed over certain letters in certain words to change the sound of the letter, for example in the word coffee. Accent can refer more generally to the mood or intonation of speaking or writing, or more technically to the stress in poetry and also to the musical stress from which the word derives. The origins of the word accent come from Latin, accent, tone/signal/intensity, from ad cantus, "to" and "song".

attachment– in grammar, applied to the diathesis/voice of a verb, active (as opposed to its opposite 'passive') generally means that the subject performs the action (towards an object) – e.g. 'dinner' (object)' , (active/diathesis), instead of passive/diathesis: 'The dinner (object) was prepared by the cook (verb)' (subject), (passive/diathesis) .

adjective– a 'word that describes' a noun – for example big, small, red, yellow, fast, slow, peaceful, angry, big, small, first, last, dangerous, touching, cute, bold, silly, smelly, sticky , universal . There are tens of thousands others, maybe hundreds of thousands. A term "sister" is an adverb,

Adverb– a word describing a verb – for example fast, slow, peaceful, dangerous, moving, brave, sticky, universal.

-Epochs– a common suffix added to stems to form a noun, particularly relating to the outcome of an action/verb, usually a collective or plural noun expressing a potential to be measurable, e.g. B.: to ruin, to spill; squander, pry, wear, block, etc. Coinage is extended to coinage to produce a collective/plural noun from a singular noun. Out is expanded to outage to form a preposition into a noun.

Allegories– a story, poem or other creative work that carries and conveys a hidden or underlying meaning, typically moral or philosophical in nature. Originally from the Greek allos, other, and agoria, to speak. Allegorical refers to a work of this type.

Alliteration- where two or more adjacent or similar words begin with or feature the same letters or sounds e.g. B. 'Bubbly Double Trouble' or 'Big Bag of Black Beans' or 'the amazing zigzagging zebras at the Zambia zoo'. Alliteration is commonly used in poetry and other forms of writing intended to entertain or delight people. This is because alliteration itself is a beautiful, almost musical way of forming words, for both speaking and listening. Shakespeare used alliteration extensively in his plays and other works, as did most other great writers throughout history. When alliteration involves the repetition of syllables and lengthened sounds rather than just consonant or vowel sounds, it can also be defined as reduplication.

anonymous– this is a pseudonym which is actually a real name – which is specific to “ghostwriting” (where a professional author writes a book or newspaper article etc. with the consent of the person whose name is used to write a piece) – an allonym also technically refers to the illegal use of another person's name in the creation of a work to be written by the named author, such as B. a forger in art.

Solo– In grammar, an allophone is a variant of a single sound (phoneme) that is pronounced slightly differently than another variant. Examples of allophones are the different 'p' sounds in 'spin' and 'pin' and the different 't' sounds in 'table' and 'stab'. The differences between allophones are usually so small that most people don't notice them and would assume the sounds are identical. The word derives from the Greek "allos" which means "other".

Alphagramm- an anagram (although not necessarily a meaningful or even pronounceable word as commonly defined by the word anagram) in which the letters of the new word or phrase are in alphabetical order, such as B. the anagram "a belt" for the word of origin 'table'.

Alfastratocus– the @ symbol – better known as Asperando.

Ambigramm– a relatively new term for a wordplay hundreds of years old, an ambigram is a word or short phrase that can be read two different ways (from two different perspectives or angles) to produce two different words/phrases, or different forms of the same word/phrase. Usually the second perspective is reversed and the different words/phrases are used, although neither of these features is an essential requirement of an ambigram. In modern times, the ambigram has been popularized by the tattoo industry and certain online/computer technologies that create ambigram designs. Other, less popular/obvious forms of ambigrams involve several different viewpoint pairs, achieved for example by: background/negative/'image background' (where the spaces between letters take the form of other letters, creating a word/phrase); rotation (usually 180 degrees); 3D (three-dimensional effect); mirror images (from the side); language translation; circular string of letters (in which two different words have different start and end points); "tiled fractal" (wherein increasing or decreasing the tiled/pixelated word shape creates new renderings); the "natural" effect (which does not require excessive distortion, like the lowercase letters "suns", "pod", "swamp" which read backwards the same way with little or no adjustment); and other variations. Ambigrams can contain uppercase, lowercase, or a mixture of letters. Some word combinations naturally produce prettier and more readable ambigrams than others, and require very little letter distortion. One of the earliest examples of a 'natural' ambigram is the word 'fool', which when viewed backwards in lower case can easily be read as the same word, and this example seems to have been first reported in 1908. coincidentally, the occurrence of the word "ambigram" can easily be converted into a sort of "backward" ambigram.

and commercial– the sign “and” (&). The word ampersand is a distorted derivation of "e per se". The symbol is a combination of the letters E and T, the Latin word "et" means "and". More details on the origins of the ampersand.

Anagramm– a word or phrase formed by rearranging the letters of a word, name or phrase, e.g. B. Pea for monkey or boobs for status. An anagram is most striking when the new word/phrase is cleverly or humorously related to the original word/phrase, e.g. Anagram of "residence" and "here come dots" is an anagram of "morse code".

Analepsis- better known as "flashback" or "retrospective" - ​​Analepsis tells or enacts a story before the "present" time (at work), usually for dramatic and explanatory purposes. The opposite is prolepsy. The term is largely based on the Greek medical term analepticos, meaning "cure."

analog/analog/analog– refers to a comparison between two similar things to show their differences, similarities, and their individual qualities. As a concept of communication, especially in teaching/learning, the use of analogies (which are similar and include metaphors and similes, ranging to stories and fables, etc.) is extremely effective. Using analogies is also beneficial for memory and information retention. The word analog refers to a corresponding thing and is traditionally used to describe technologies that replicate/record/measure things by mechanical means as opposed to more modern electronic/digital methods e.g. . The words come from the Greek “analogos”: ana, “after”, and logos, “relationship”.

anonymous– a sort of anagrammatic word formed by reversing the spelling of another word – for example Trebor, the candy company. Unfortunately, it's difficult to find other examples that aren't scientific or otherwise so obscure as to be downright mundane. You might find better ones yourself.

He killeda word or phrase that refers to and replaces another word or set of words previously used in a passage or phrase - for example: "I was looking in the old closet in the bedroom at the top of the stairs, but it was empty. - here "it" is an anaphor for "the old closet in the room at the top of the stairs". Another example is: “I will eat, walk, and then sit in the garden; do you want that too?...” – here “that” is an anaphor for “eat, go for a walk, then sit in the garden”. A simpler example is “John woke up, he was rubbing his eyes. .." - here 'he' is an anaphor for John. An anaphor is generally used to save time and avoid unwanted repetition. See cataphor, where the replacement word precedes a subsequent word.

He killed- this has two (confusingly somewhat opposite) meanings, probably deriving from its Greek origin, meaning repetition. In short, anaphora is the action of using an anaphora (a substitute word like he, she, etc.) in relation to a previous word or phrase to avoid repetition and save time. Second, and quite differently, anaphora refers to the intentional use of repetition, specifically a writing/speaking technique in rhetoric that uses the repetition of a word or phrase to create impact at the beginning of consecutive sentences or passages. For example: “People need clothes. people need protection. The people need food…” Here the repetition of “the people need” has a dramatic effect. Another better-known example is Winston Churchill's World War II speech "We will fight on the beaches": "We will go all the way. We will fight in France, we will fight on seas and oceans, we will fight in the air with growing confidence and growing strength, we will defend our island at all costs. We'll fight on the beaches, we'll fight in the landings, we'll fight in the fields and on the roads, we'll fight on the hills; we must never give up.” Here the dramatic repetition of “we must” and “we will fight” creates a remarkable inspirational and motivating effect. The word epistrophe refers to this effect when used at the end of sentences or clauses.

anonymous– An anonymous person or post, which could extend to an anonymous post on the internet/website.

antanacleo– a sentence or statement containing two identical words/phrases, where the repeated word or phrase means something completely different from the first, for example: “Time flies like an arrow; the fruit flies like a banana" (here the words "flies like..." mean firstly "raisins like..." and secondly "flies [insects] like to eat..."). Another often-cited example of anthanaclasia is the motivational threat attributed to football coach Vince Lombardi: "If you're not fired with enthusiasm, you'll be fired with enthusiasm" (where "fired" first means "motivated" and "motivated" means "motivated." " second). means "fired" or removed from the team). Antanaklasis is a form of wordplay and is often used to illustrate the confusing and ambiguous nature of language/communication, particularly in the study of psycholinguistics (like the mind in the language processing works).

Anthropomorphismus/anthropomorph– the attribution of human form or properties to non-human things, such as inanimate objects, gods, or concepts such as the weather or the economy, or a city or nation, or anything else that may be so described or depicted for dramatic/literary/humorous effect, that they have some kind of human quality. For example, the following are very simple anthropomorphic expressions or anthropomorphisms: a "happy meal"; a 'friendly bar'; a "tear film"; a "computer that doesn't behave"; a 'dumb waiter'; a "drink or candy bar that is my best friend"; "music or art that speaks to me"; an image of the sun with a smiling face; a wind image of a person's face blowing hard; Millions of cartoons and animations, like cars with faces or animals with human facial expressions and personalities; countless logos and marks that contain an image or symbol with some kind of human quality or movement (for example, a "kicking K" and anything with a smile or even a hat); and all those digital media icons with faces. Anthropomorphism is ubiquitous and plays a crucial role in human communication. (Here's another one...the suggestion that anthropomorphism "does matter"...)

Antonym– a word that has an opposite meaning in relation to another, e.g. fast and slow, high and low, male and female, dead and alive, etc. (from Greek anti, against and onuma, a name). Interestingly, the antonym of the word antonym is a synonym (a word meaning the same or equivalent to another).

Aphorismus– a statement in a few words, e.g. B. a short and memorable maxim or a quote that makes a strong statement, e.g. B. “No pain, no gain”.

apocryph / apocryph– Scriptures that are not authentic (e.g. misquoted quotations or excerpts, etc.) but which can be presented or assumed as authentic, which is particularly true for claimed biblical works or ancient Chinese writings, and increasingly a term is becoming common all applied ancient writings that have no claimed or confirmed authenticity. The word is Greek and originally means "hidden writings", from apokruptein "to hide".

Washed off– this is a very broad term, it simply refers to the alternation of sounds in the root of a word that produces different tenses, meanings or versions of the word, e.g. B. sing, sing, sing. It is also called ablaut apophony, alternation, gradation, internal inflection, internal modification, replacement morphology, stem change, stem modification, stem mutation, among other variants.

Apophase– a broad term for various types of language and communication techniques that infer or suggest something by emphasizing what it is not, or reject, deny, or introduce ironically a concept and then withdraw (the speaker) from the 'fact' or distance . Examples are the paralipse and syllogism, as well as the 'twenty questions' game and the general concept of 'exceptionally' and the 'process of exclusion'.

apotegm– (Luckily the 'ph' and 'g' are silent – ​​the word is pronounced 'appathem', stress on the first syllable – apothegm is the American English spelling) – an apothegm is a succinct and expressive saying, for example “You take out what you put in', which is an aphorism derived from the Greek apopthengesthai, meaning to speak.

Apostrophe– a punctuation mark (represented simply as ') indicating ownership (as in John's books), or omitted letters (as in: don't know or rock 'n' roll), or a quoted or clearly deleted/emphasized element (as in : die Message was created with great care in the sense of "political correctness"..)

Law/Law– where two similar references occur together, usually without a conjunction, e.g. “my son the doctor”.

acronym- a person's name to match their profession or character, most obviously children's book characters like the Mr Men series (Mr Messy, Mr Bump, etc.) to amusing fictional examples like carpenter Dwayne Pipe or park ranger Theresa Green or yoga teacher Ben Dover or hairdresser Dan Druff. From apt meaning appropriate and from Latin aptus meaning adapted. Apparently the term was first suggested by Franklin P. Adams. Also called aptonym or characteronym.

Jargon– a word referring to a secret coded language used particularly, but not exclusively, by criminals, e.g. B. obscure slang or cockney rhyming slang; Slang ('argo') is originally a French/Spanish-Catalan word for slang. Argo can also refer to jargon or terminology specific to a particular group or discipline, e.g. B. military, hobbyists, scientists, etc.

together– Articulation refers to the formation of clear sounds in speech, including vowels and especially consonants. Technically, this is analyzed/achieved by controlling and adjusting the flow of air (from breathing while speaking) through the various vocal organs and mouthparts, each of which produces a remarkably wide range of possible sounds, which increases even further when different cultures are taken into account . /Languages ​​around the world. Also technically, articulation, which refers to the use of airflow and the vocal parts of the mouth and encompasses phonation, is one of the most important and fundamental ways to enable the development and analysis of speech. The word articulation ultimately derives from the Latin articulus, "little connecting piece". See important “places of articulation”.

ASCII– (pronounced “askee”) stands for the American Standard Code for Information Interchange, introduced in the 1960s ASCII is a dominant and widely used system for encoding letters and other characters for use in electronic text devices, primarily computers and the Internet.

the abuse– the @ sign, also called alphastratocus, which is now widely used in computing, especially in e-mail addresses, where it simply means “at”. Originally the 'at' sign was an accounting term meaning 'at the price of', for example: 10 gadgets at £3 each = £30 total.

asterisk- the asterisk (*), commonly used to indicate that a supplementary note follows (also represented by an asterisk), or to separately replace letters in offensive words in published texts.

Autoantonym/Autoantonym/Autoantonym– one of two different words that have the same spelling (a homograph) but opposite meanings, e.g. B. fast (moving fast or fixed). The term comes from the Greek auto, meaning oneself, and antonymously, anti, meaning against. Also called contranym, contronym, antagonism, antilogy, enantiodrome, autoantonym, addad, didd, and janus word. This peculiar phenomenon, called "enantionomy" and "antilogy," is of great interest to linguists, language lovers, and curious speculators. Here are some examples: Cap (limit, stop and add, increase); Excellent (satisfactory, standard exceeded and insufficient, standard not met); monitoring (checking, monitoring and neglecting, refraining); weather (resist, stand the test of time and corrode, wear away or be exposed); stapling (attaching two or more things together with a staple and dividing something into two or more parts, e.g. cutting a paper object or tying someone's hair); powder (removing a layer of powdered substance and applying a layer of powdered substance, e.g. when pollinating plants or taking fingerprints); trimming (to add or beautify something, e.g. to decorate the Christmas tree and to cut something, e.g. to cut hair or a hedge); Splitting (separates or breaks and sticks or sticks); Ravish (violent abuse and joy); sanction (an authorization and a preventive sanction); Bloodthirsty (joyful and bloodthirsty); screw (fixed, securely in place and moving quickly, run away); embellish (add to, embellish, or decorate and remove, as in a legal notice to confiscate money or property); Tethered (permanent or fixed and in motion, such as jumping or traveling); Left (was and remains); Crazy (angry and attracted); Livid (irritated and pale, without color or spirit); end (start something, like a clock or a discussion, and end something, like a process or conference); Explode (inflate, for example, create a balloon and destroy it with explosives). Other suggestions are always welcome.

independent– a self-descriptive word (also called self-referential); for example noun is a noun, polysyllabic is polysyllabic, abbreviation. is an abbreviation and word is a word. Regardless, autonym refers to a person's real name, as opposed to a pseudonym. And regardless, an autonym can again be a name by which a social group or race of people refers to themselves. From the Greek car itself.

Axiom– a statement or statement that is proven, true, accepted or taken as “self-evident”. For example: “We need air to breathe” or “Many people find solace in religion”. Upon critical examination, some axiomatic statements can be taken for granted. Certain tautologies that aim to convince people of a supposedly established point of view are commonly presented as axiomatic, although the basic assumption within the tautology is not really an axiom but rather a matter of opinion. Many stereotypes are offered as axioms when in reality they are often subjective, and there are opposing "accepted" stereotypes. The word axiom derives from the Greek "axios", "worthy".

Jargon- an informal "coded" language consisting of inverted words or with inverted elements within words, originally used by groups of people attempting to speak openly but secretly among others outside the group, e.g. historically by hypermarket traders within earshot by customers, or by gangsters. Backslang has been popular among teenagers at various times and exists as secret "reverse" coded slang in many non-English speaking cultures. Some reverse slang expressions are finding their way into mainstream speech and dictionaries, such as B. the word yob, a derogatory term for a child.

sailing/backrónimo– an 'inverted acronym', ie a set of acronyms or a set of words built up from their abbreviated form rather than their full form (as is the case with a traditional acronym). The abbreviated form of a bacronym is usually a recognizable word or name whose full "meaning" consists of words whose sequence and initials match the abbreviation, e.g. B. YAHOO = Another Hierarchical Unofficial Oracle or IBM = I Blame Microsoft . The full form is usually a humorous, witty, or ironic reference to the word or name being explained by the abbreviation. The word bacronym/backronym is an artificial combination of upside down and acronym. See the list of acronyms and acronyms for many examples.

Bad- in speech, particularly poetic and dramatic, a shocking and generally amusing change of mood or anticlimax caused by the unexpected introduction of a bawdy/hard/basic term immediately after a (usually much longer) sublime/impressive/intoxicating/sublime/or another edifying passage of words. The mood swing is "down to earth with a yank," as if intended to give the reader/audience a sudden startling sense of normality or ridiculous contrast after first creating an atmosphere of ever-higher thoughts and images. For example: “…the new vicar made a profound impact on the congregation with a sermon of deep meaning, growing inspiration, and genuine compassion. He paused dramatically before delivering his final uplifting conclusion, and by the time he sipped on last night's Vindoloo and half a bottle of cognac again, he was fed up with a choirboy..."

bilabial consonant– a consonant articulated with both lips. There are hundreds of variations of technical pronunciation. This is an example of a group of them. Look at the points of articulation to understand where/how the vowels of the words/letters are formed. See also the International Phonetic Alphabet and Associated IPA Table (pdf) for schematic explanations and details of how these sounds are named and what symbols are used to indicate them. It is fascinating. (The IPA chart is published here under the following reproduction permission terms: IPA Chart, https://www.langsci.ucl.ac.uk/ipa/ipachart.html, available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported License Copyright © 2005 International Phonetic Association.)

Ball/Balls/Tokens– an increasingly popular and highly effective way of presenting information in which a series of (usually) short sentences, each dealing with a different topic, is followed by a large period or other symbol (sometimes a bullet or arrow, an asterisk, or similar ) is preceded by another symbol to improve clarity of presentation and increase emphasis). The "bullets" (the actual periods or marks) act like exclamation points, but at the beginning of sentences instead of at the end. Some people debate whether bullet points should follow the grammar rules for sentences or not, i.e. H. start with a capital letter, end with a period, etc. Therefore, they are unlikely to become more common in the future. Professional writers and presenters tend to support the view that there is an optimal number of bullet points when presenting information intended to persuade and engage people, and this ranges from 3 to 7 points, suggesting that 5 points are good insurance. When bullets are used in different situations, e.g. For example, in detailed lists and long summaries, the notion of an ideal persuasive number no longer applies, and in these circumstances numbered bullets are often more advantageous and effective. For short, crisp presentations of information/arguments, bullet points are often an unbeatable format anyway.

cacophony / cacophony– in linguistics, this refers to ugly, discordant speech, words, or utterances. It is the opposite of euphony, and like euphony, cacophony is a significantly influential concept in the evolution of language, consistent with the principle that humans have generally preferred to use and hear pleasant vowels over unpleasant ones over time. Pleasant words and sounds flow more easily from the tongue and mouth than cacophonous utterances, and this affects the way words and language develop. The word comes from the Greek kakos, bad, and telephone, sound. See euphony.

cadence– In linguistics, cadence refers to the drop in pitch of vocalized sounds at the end of phrases and sentences, usually indicating an ending or significant pause. It comes from the Latin cadere, to fall. More generally, cadence can refer to modulation or inflection in voice or speech.

CamelCaseName– a style of text layout popular in the computer/internet age that does not use spaces but uses capital letters to indicate the beginning of words. The term "camel" alludes to hunchbacked word forms.

Capitol– word that changes meaning and pronunciation if it starts with a capital letter; for example. Polish and Polish, August and August, Concord and Concord – from the capital (letter).

can not– A cant is a secret or cipher language used by a group for secrecy and is equivalent to jargon.

(Video) Angela Lee Duckworth: Chìa khóa dẫn đến thành công? Sự bền bỉ.

Cataphora– a word or phrase that refers to and replaces another word or set of words used later in a passage or sentence – for example: “It was empty; the old closet was empty..." - here "it" is the metaphor for "the old closet". Another example is "When it had to compete with social networks, television became less dominant..." - here "it" is the metaphor for television. See anaphora.

Cataphora– the act of using a cataphor in writing or orally to avoid repetition or to achieve dramatic effect, i.e. the use of a substitute word in a passage instead of its later equivalent. From the Greek kata, below, but based on the same pattern as anaphora.

clause– Technically, in grammar, a sentence is a set of words standing alone as a sentence that makes sense and conveys meaning, but is shorter than a sentence. A clause is interpreted more loosely as a sentence or statement, especially in formal documents.

cliché / cliché– a written or spoken utterance commonly and widely used by people in conversation, other speech, and written communication, which is generally considered unoriginal in application, although the ironic or humorous use of clichés may be a very skilful use of language can. The use of standard templates in high quality written, printed or online communications, materials, presentations, books, media and graphics is generally considered bad practice. That's because clichés are inherently unoriginal, uninspiring, and worse, boring, tiring, and can come across as lazy, mindless creative work. There are thousands of clichés that are commonly found in everyday speech, emails, text messages, etc. and in all types of produced media such as newspapers, radio, television, online, etc. Day. The word comes from the French cliché "stereotype". Examples of clichés are: "That's life", "It's as simple as that", "Fit for a king", "All in a day's work", "All fairs in love and war" and "Many true words become true spoken in jest'. Many similes have become widespread clichés, for example: 'Silent as a Mouse', 'Sells Like Hot Cakes', 'Fall Like a Lead Balloon', 'Dead Like a Dodo', 'Fighted Like a Lion', 'Black as Night' and 'Fast as Lightning'. Many metaphors have become popular clichés such as: "Pigs Can Fly", "Crossing Boundaries", "In the Clouds", "Gone for a Burton" and "All Month Long". See many other examples of stereotypes and their origins. A cliché is often alternatively and loosely referred to as an expression or idiom.

Cockney- Cockney refers to the dialect of the traditional people of central east London (“Eastenders”, also known as Cockneys). Examples of Cockney language can be heard widely in films and television shows depicting stereotypes of "working class" London, such as the BBC soap opera Eastenders, Jack the Ripper films, London gangster films, The Sweeny, and other similar entertainment genres. The Cockney dialect has many 'dropped' consonant letters (usually t, h replaced by glottal stops, due to the 'lazy' or 'efficient' style of speech, e.g. words like hunt, house, heat, cat and headache are pronounced" un', 'ouse', 'ea', 'ca' and 'edday', where glottal stops replace the omitted letters.Also, the 'th' sound is often replaced by an 'f' or 'sound v', e.g. in "barf" (bath), "muvva" (mother) and "fing" (to think) The term "ain't" almost always replaces "is't".

Cockney reimender Slang- a 'coded' Old English slang language in which the replacement word/phrase is formed by a (usually) two-word term, the second of which rhymes with the word to be replaced. Usually only the first word of the replacement phrase is used, for example the word "talk" is replaced by "rabbit" from "rabbit and pig" which rhymes with "talk". Other examples of Cockney rhyming slang may retain the full expression of the rhyme, for example "gin" is known as "mother's bane". See the Cockney rhyming slang list for more information and examples. Australians also use rhyming slang, which is an evolution of the original Cockney rhyming language. Many words have entered the English language from rhyming Cockney slang, many of which are not considered to have originated in this way, for example the terms "scarper" (run away, from scapa flow, to go), "brassic" (pennyless, from Boraco fluff, skin) and 'pan' (money, from bread and honey).

comparative– refers to an adverb or adjective expressing a higher degree of quality, for example “greater” is the comparative of “great”; 'inferior' is the comparative of 'inferior'.

conjugation– refers to the change of verb, or to the resulting verb form after the change, or to a category or type of change for reasons of time, gender, person, etc. The base form of the word, like “smile”, is a lexeme; "Smile" is the past tense conjugation. The term "past" can also be called a conjugation as it refers to a change in a verb.

connection– a word that connects two words or phrases together, for example “if”, “but”, “and”, etc.

Consonant- a speech sound (and a letter meaning one of them) produced by impeding the flow of air during the pronunciation of words. Words essentially include sounds that are consonants and vowels, and the written representation of words includes letters that are consonants and vowels. Look at the points of articulation to see how consonant sounds are made.

contraction– In linguistics, contraction is a shortening of a word and also refers to the shortened word itself. This is a very important aspect of language development. A contraction is a form of abbreviation that language is of course constantly changing. The word "goodbye" is a contraction of "God be with you." The word "pram" (a stroller) is a contraction of the original word "stroller". the word "confusion" is a contraction of the original word Belém (psychiatric hospital). Combined abbreviated word forms like don't, can't, should've, you're, I'm, and ain't, etc. they are all contractions. Many words are contractions of older words, or of more than one word that has been shortened to a shorter word by contraction. Twitching is primarily driven by the unconscious human tendency to try to speak (articulate) more easily and efficiently so that words flow and mouth/tongue movement is minimal. Language naturally develops in this way. Over time, words will be shortened and spelling simplified. Elision, the omission of a sound or syllable in speech, is an important feature of many contractions and illustrates how language evolves according to popular usage rather than the rules that grammar lessons and dictionaries provide. Acronym words are also contractions, but of a different kind, mostly not the result of an elision but a deliberate combination of abbreviated words.

contradiction- a point of view or statement that contradicts another point of view or a previous statement, or a verbalized statement or position that argues against itself, also commonly referred to, especially for short statements, as a "contradiction of terms". To speak of the elements of the Latin root contra, contra and dicere.

a contradiction in itself– a short phrase or statement that contradicts itself, e.g. B. "Hell" or "I got drunk sober". A “contradiction in terms” is also known as an oxymoron.

Contranonym / Contranonym -one of two words with the same spelling and opposite meaning, for example the word "screw" (which can mean tight and safe, and the opposite meaning: move fast and run away). See autononym.

connection– a word that connects two statements or sentences or words, like the words: if, but, and, than, that, so, etc.

Copyright ©– the legal right (control and ownership) automatically granted to the creator of the artistic work, such as writings, designs, artworks and music, to publish, sell and exploit the work in question. Copyright is a very important concept when creating language-based works such as poems, books, and other writings. It's important to note that copyright law makes it illegal to copy and exploit other people's work without permission. Copyright generally lasts for several decades, depending on the territory and type of work, and can be governed by very complex laws. Copyrights can be sold, transferred or the terms of use relaxed at the will of the owner of the work. Contrary to popular belief, copyright does not require registration. It exists automatically when the work is created. If you simply scribble a pattern or some original sentences on a piece of paper, this "work" automatically comes under your "copyright". Copyright usually includes a date of creation and/or publication and/or update or revision. Many printed works can be copyrighted in several parts, e.g. B. the work originally created, the layout/layout of the publication and possibly separately for images and diagrams created by others. The creator of the work decides whether to assign copyright to a buyer of the work, which is usually a matter of negotiation, depending on the type of use and the respective needs and capabilities of the buyer and seller. See also plagiarism.

crossword– a crossword enthusiast/expert.

Reject- the altered form of the base form (lexema) of a noun or adjective or pronoun for reasons of number, gender, etc. The word girl is a lexeme. The word girl is a declension. In general, English has fewer declensions than other languages ​​such as French and German.

Devil– also called Gentile – the word Gentile refers to the name of someone who lives in (or more loosely originates from or was born in) a particular country, city or other place. Most demonyms are derived very naturally and logically from the place name, for example: American, Australian, Indian, Mexican, British, Scots, Irish, although some vary slightly more, such as Welsh (from Wales), Mancunian (from Manchester). , United Kingdom), Liverpudlian (Liverpool, United Kingdom), Marciano (Mars) and some demonyms that are completely different words, like Dutch (from Holland/Netherlands). The word demonymic is recent in this precise context (late 20th century), with attribution uncertain, although the term demonymic appears to have been first recorded in 1893 in relation to a specific type of person in Athens from the deme, a political division of Attica ( OED). antiquity. Greece, in turn, from the Greek demos, people.

determining– in language and grammar, a determiner is a modifier word that clarifies the nature of a noun or noun phrase – a determiner tells the listener or reader the status of something, for example in terms of uniqueness, quantity, quality, relative position, etc. . . Examples of modifiers are 'a', 'the', 'very', 'this', 'that', 'my', 'your', 'many', 'pows', 'many' etc.

diacritic- a character or character of any kind appearing with a letter (above, below or across) to indicate a different pronunciation. For example accent, cedilla, caret, umlaut, etc. See diacritics. From Greek diakrinein to distinguish the day, through, and krinein to separate.

dialect- the language, including sound and pronunciation, of a particular region, area, nationality, social group or other group of people.

Diathesis- is equal in grammar to voice, i.e. whether a verb or verb construction is active or passive, e.g. 'some nightclubs prohibit ripped jeans' is active diathesis, while 'some nightclubs prohibit ripped jeans' is passive diathesis. In tactical or sensitive communication, the use of passive or active diathesis is often a less provocative way of communicating something that implies blame or guilt, e.g. "the copier is broken" (passive/diathesis) is less accusatory/confrontational than "someone" . broke the copier' (active voice/diathesis). Common examples of this diathesis/passive usage are warnings such as "thieves will be sued" (passive) and "breaks must be paid for" (passive), which are less confrontational/direct than "we'll sue you if you steal". us” (asset) and “You must pay for anything you damage” (asset). However, with a different verb and context, active diathesis may be less threatening, e.g. B. "The situation is challenging" (Active) appears less stressful than "We/they are challenged by this situation" (Passive). Often the presence/possible presence of the word "of" indicates that the diathesis/voice is passive.

Dichotomy– In linguistics, a dichotomy is a separation or contrast between two things (ideas, concepts, etc.) that are considered to be completely different, especially opposing or competing, which can occur, for example, in a debate or election. The dichotomous adjective refers to something containing two concepts, ideas, theories, etc. different or opposite or contrasting. In some contexts, a dichotomy is synonymous with contradiction or an oxymoron. (From Greek dikho, in two/apart, and tomy, referring to an event).

tonto– In written or printed language, a dingbat is a symbol, most commonly an asterisk, replacing a letter, usually multiple dingbats for multiple letters to reduce the offensive effect of vulgar words like f**k or s**t. Dingbats can also be used to replace all the letters in a vulgar word, especially for dramatic or funny effects in cartoon balloons, for example ***!!, or that's probably a bit crude *¿¿* $$?!!* * *!!.

Diphthong– a monosyllabic vowel that has two distinct qualities, one often very subtly merging into the other, produced by the combination of two vowels, whether the vowels are together (e.g. like in the street and in the rain) separately (as in game and side) or joined as a ligature (as in traditional encyclopedia notation). Note that the two distinct qualities of vowel sound are not easily distinguished, and many speakers of the language in question will believe that such sounds are a single pure vowel sound, as in a monophthong. A diphthong usually implies a very slight offset or slightly different sound in the same syllable. See also tritongo, which refers to the existence of three different sound qualities in a single vowel-sounding syllable. Monophthong refers to a monosyllabic pure vowel. The word diphthong derives from the Greek di, twice, and phthongos, voice/sound.

Diphthongation/Monophthongation– this is a key feature of language development: the development of language and dialect (increasingly across cultures) affects what we consider “proper” or “dictionary” words and language, and involves transitions from pronunciation of monophthongs to diphthongs (and vice versa). the opposite). ) as essential factors. These transitions are called diphthongization (pronunciation introduces an additional vowel, such as a slide or draw, changing a single tone to a double tone) and monophthongization (a double tone is simplified to a faster, simpler single tone), respectively. . These language features and changes are important in creating differences in accent when, for example, we compare the dialects of American English speakers (from different parts of the United States) to each other and to British English speakers (again, in different parts of the United States). compare states). UK) and with each other and with other English speakers. The same features of diphthongization and monophthongization have also been important in the development of the English language throughout history. Similar effects exist in other languages.

dis-– a very common prefix denoting negativity, reversal/reversal, or a disadvantage.

Network– a technical word for a written or oral communication of any kind, often involving a series of communications.

idem– ditto means “the same as” (what comes before it), from Latin dictus, said. Ditto is probably most commonly seen as a ditto (") tag in columns or rows or lists of data, where it means "same as above". When the repetition is a long string of data or words, multiple symbols can be joined by hyphens or a single symbol can be flanked by two very long dashes running to either end of the repeated data, avoiding the need for an identical symbol under each element/word.

dog berry- an unpopular alternative term for a malapropism, in which a similar-sounding word in the language is incorrectly substituted. The term derives from the policeman character Dogberry in Shakespeare's As You Like It.

ambiguous– a double meaning or pun, one of the meanings being amusing, usually in a sexually suggestive or lewd way – from Old French, double entente, now “double entente”).

ambiguous– a play on words in which a word, phrase, or statement can be interpreted to mean two different things, usually when the less obvious meaning is funny or hilariously lewd or rude.

double negative- is usually a mis-grammatical use of two negative words or constructions within a single statement, so that the technical result is an expression of the positive or opposite of what the speaker/writer intended. The usage is commonly associated with adults and children in inarticulate regional slang, although more complex but still awkward forms of the double negative can be found in supposedly specialized communications. A common example in everyday speech is: "I don't know anything..." (which is equivalent to "I know something") or "They never did anything about it..." Separately, the double negative is often simple or possibly very intelligent used within the euphemism or litote to emphasize something and/or make a humorous or sarcastic comment - for example "That's not bad..." to mean very good. See lithographs.

Dysphasia– a brain disorder resulting from an accident or illness that prevents speech and/or understanding of language.

Dysphemism– a negative, derogatory or offensive term used in place of a neutral (and more common) term; the opposite of a euphemism.

more-hey– a combination of loose wordplay and misconduct (usually intentional). An egg corn may be written or spoken, drafted or notated primarily for humorous effect, substituting a word or words within a term, phrase or sentence to produce a different and (usually) related meaning. For example, the adaptation of "Alzheimer's disease" to "old age". The term "Corn Egg" is attributed to Linguistics Professor Geoffrey Pullum, 2003, who appears to have relied on an example of the effect in a linguistics blog involving a woman using the term "Corn Egg" instead of the word " acorn” used. Other examples of egg tripe can be just as wacky, although some are more sophisticated. Irony is often a trait of eggnog. Wikipedia (2013) provides the examples: “ex-patriot” instead of “ex-pat”; “partner name” instead of “maiden name”; "in the heat of the moment" instead of "in the heat of the moment"; "robber mantis" instead of "mantis". Trade names offer fruitful opportunities for eggnog, for example (actually) a junk shop called "Sew What" ("So What"); a fast-food grill restaurant called "Hindenburger" (a dark and ironic reference to the hellish German Hindenburg airship disaster of 1937); a gardener named "The Lawn Ranger" ("The Lone Ranger"); a snack bar called "Lettuce Eat" ("let's eat"); A Chinese restaurant called Wok and Roll (rock 'n' roll'); a back alley bookstore called Book Passage (also colloquial for anus, although that has nothing to do with the books themselves - just a fun idea); a tennis center called 'O Mercador do Tênis' ('The Merchant of Venice' - no relevance to tennis or sport, just funny); a flower shop called "Florist Gump" ("Forrest Gump" - no meaning for flowers, just a silly pun); a fish and chip shop called "The Cod" ("The Godfather", famous film series, again just a funny pun); a contractor named "William the Concretor"; a barber named Cubic Hair (also a nod to the Cubist art movement); a kebab restaurant called "Pita Pan" ("Peter Pan" and also a nod to a frying pan); a furniture store called Sofa So Good; a sandwich shop called "Lord of the Fries" ("Lord of the Flies", William Golding's 1954 bestseller, and absolutely no connection to fish and chips). The monetary slang "sick squid" ("six pounds") is a corn egg from which the term "squid" is derived, meaning quid (£ pounds).

Elision- the omission of a sound or syllable when pronouncing words, such as B. no, no, isn't, I am, you are, etc. The usual pronunciation of the word "Wednesday" as "wensdy" is Elision. The use of glottal stop is also often an elision, as in the English pronunciation of "a pint and a half" in Cockney/Estuary as "a pi'n'arf". Elision is a common feature of contractions (short words).

Ellipse- Missing word(s) in speech or text, e.g. "Keep Off Grass", (here "the" was omitted for reasons of space/effect). Ellipses may be used for a variety of reasons, for example: irrelevant sections omitted from a quoted passage, usually denoted by three dots to indicate only the significant sections, for example "...positive economic factors...leading to significant growth..."; or in speech/text due to casual, lazy, or abbreviated language, e.g. own risk "customer risk" Another common reason for reluctance is when the surrounding context allows for the omission of words that seem unnecessary/repetitive, as in the article / List of activities, for example in the descriptive passage: "He packed shoes, socks, shirts, ties. A blazer. Twins. Some silk scarves. And cologne. Here the ellipses create the dramatic effect of carefully packing items into a box in various actions pack instead of (full version arguably grammatically correct, but clunkier and less dramatic/prosaic, continuous flow): "He packed shoes, socks, shirts, and ties. He also bought a blazer, cufflinks, some silk handkerchiefs and a cologne. The word ellipse comes from the ancient Greek ellipein, meaning "to omit."

Emphasis– loosely equating the pronunciation stress of words and syllables, and separately and broadly applying the different intonations and loudnesses given by speakers to specific words or phrases in a spoken passage in order to create impact, attract attention, prioritize, etc ... In print communication, this usually means emphasizing, italics or emphasizing the text in question. Dictionaries and other phrasebooks/pronunciations guides often indicate which syllables of words should be stressed or emphasized by inserting a single apostrophe in front of the syllable in question.

Epistrophe– Repetition of a word or series of words at the end of successive clauses or phrases used for emphasis and dramatic effect, particularly in speech and prose, as used, for example, by Abraham Lincoln in his Gettysburg address, “…this nation, under Gott , there will be a new birth of liberty - and this government of the people, by the people, for the people, will not disappear from the face of the earth.” The effect is also called epiphora. The counterpart to anaphora, which uses repetitions at the beginning of sentences/sentences.

Epitaph– a phrase or other series of words written to commemorate or be remembered and associated with someone who has died, e.g. B. as it usually appears on a tombstone. Comedian Spike Milligan penned his famously hilarious epitaph, "I Said I Was Sick."

nickname– an adjective or phrase that is or would be generally recognized as characterizing a person or a type or other thing, using a word or very few words that convey the essence or main aspect of the thing in question. An epithet attempts to describe someone or a group or something in an obviously symbolic and highly condensed way. For example, noisy little dogs are commonly referred to by the epithet "yappy." The nickname "tried and proven" is commonly used to refer to long-established and successful methods and processes. The epithet "keen" is often used to refer to a person who is particularly enthusiastic, determined, and focused, and generally highly motivated to achieve a specific action or outcome. The epithet "pleasant green country" is often used to refer to England. From Greek epi, further, and tithenai, place.

eponymous– a name for something derived from a personal name, or the name of something else, for example Pen (named after Laszlo Biro, inventor of the pen), Atlas (named after the Titan Atlas of Greek mythology, who held the world ). his shoulders), Mach (the terrestrial unit of measure and the speed of sound, after Ernst Mach). The descriptive term for a namesake is eponymous. Therefore, an eponymous name is one that bears the name of someone/something. The term derives from the Greek epo, meaning "on".

English Estuary– the dialect and style of speech associated with people in and around London, particularly in the Essex and Kent conurbations near the Thames Estuary, hence the name. This is a relatively new term and an attempt by certain media outlets and commentators to label the Greater London accent as distinct from Cockney.

etymology– the technical/study area of ​​word origin and how words change over time, or specifically the history of a word, originally from the Greek etumos, right.

Estimated- a word or morphs from which a later word is derived.

euphonious / euphonious– relates to the pleasant nature of speech and vowel sounds and is a very important aspect of language development. Because language develops according to its quality and meaning. Words and sounds that are pleasing to the ear and our unconscious responses tend to be preferred and used over language whose sounds (and efforts to produce them) are unpleasant for both speaker and listener (cacophonic calls). Even euphonious sounds flow more smoothly, allowing for easier and more satisfying communication. The phrase "easy listening" actually has a very deep meaning. Languages ​​evolve like living beings; The best and fittest sounds in words continue to thrive, persist and adapt positively. Inappropriate and unpleasant sounds struggle for long-term acceptance and popularity. Clear examples of the positive influence of euphony can be found in the popularity of reduplicative words, in alliterative phrases and in poems that are easy and pleasant - euphonious - to say and hear. Avoid confusing euphony and cacophony with the meaning of the words. Euphony and cacophony relate to sound and ease of expression, not meaning. Words that have an extremely ugly or offensive meaning are often incredibly euphonious. In fact, most offensive words are very euphonious: they're easy to say and phonetically pleasing to the ear (although it's important to ignore the meaning when considering this statement). This is one of the main reasons offensive words thrive and remain so popular: people love to say them. Contrast this with "difficult" words like long chemical names that have been engineered by scientists and engineers rather than evolved over hundreds of years. These words are seldom euphonious: they are clumsy and unnatural, and therefore remain obscure. That's why we always prefer to say "bleach" rather than "sodium hypochlorite." It's not a question of word length, it's that "sodium hypochlorite" is cacophonous while "bleach" is sublimely euphonious. Actually, "sodium" is very euphonious (it's an old word), but "hypochlorite" sounds ugly and is very difficult to say, so it will "never catch on". On the other hand, when we say that words "fall off the tongue," this is both a metaphorical expression and an instinctive appreciation of euphony and also the importance of euphony in the way we speak and how speech develops.

exonym– a place name used by foreigners that differs from the local or national name. From the Greek exo, meaning outside.

Expression– An expression in the language corresponds loosely and generally to a cliché, or the term expression/Expressed refers separately to a type of communication, for example “an expression of dismay” or “John expressed surprise” .

Euphemism– a positive/upbeat/soft word or phrase replaced with a strong/negative/offensive/harsh word or phrase, usually to avoid embarrassment or embarrassment (to either the communicator and/or the audience), or cynical used to deceive others, often to avoid criticism. For example: "collateral damage" instead of "civilian casualties/death" to justify military action; or “the birds and the bees” instead of “sex” in sex education; or “downsizing” instead of “layoffs” in company announcements; or “negative growth” instead of “loss” or “contraction” in comments on financial performance. Death and dying are often expressed with a euphemism, for example "pass away". Heaven is arguably a euphemism for what happens after death. Euphemisms are very common when it comes to sexual matters and bodily functions due to real or perceived shame. Hence terms like "making love" and words like poop, small, will, bum, etc. Some euphemisms are appropriate, others are or are wrong. When there is a sincere intention not to hurt or upset sensitive human situations, euphemisms are generally appropriate. When a politician or businessman uses euphemistic language to avoid responsibility, blame, etc., the euphemisms are cynical and dishonest. The inverse or opposite of a euphemism is a dysphemism.

pictorial– In language, the figurative term refers to the non-literal use of words dedicated to the symbolic or metaphorical representation of concepts, thoughts, things, ideas, feelings, etc. The term figurative is very broad and can potentially mean any descriptive usage, which is not factual. Figurative forms of description include simile, metaphor, exaggeration, or other descriptive means that distort the strict technical meaning of the words used.

manner of speech– a rhetorical figure is a symbolic expression; "Figure of speech" is a very broad term for a word or set of words, used in writing or orally in a non-literal (i.e. symbolic) sense, which may be a cliché, metaphor, simile, or other symbolically representative expression a concept, feeling, idea, or other message. An idiom can be a popular and widely used expression, or one that a person invents for a one-time use. There are many thousands of rhetorical figures in language, many of which we mistakenly think of as just ordinary literal expressions, such is the usual way many of them are used.

Fuente– Today the word font has a broader meaning than its original or traditional meaning: font used to refer to a specific size and style of typeface (font is a font family like Times or Helvetica covering all sizes and includes variants such as bold and italics, etc.). In modern times, typeface tends to refer to an entire typeface family or typeface (like Times or Helvetica). The word fountain derives from the French font and fodre, to melt, and refers to the production of lead type used in traditional printing.

the old– This is a fairly old formal writing or speaking technique: the former here refers to the first of several (usually two) elements mentioned in an earlier passage of text/speech. Its sister word is posterior, which refers to the last point (usually the second) mentioned in an earlier passage of the text. A common example is: "...there was a problem with the keys and the house when the former were locked in the latter..." Usage is generally intended to avoid unnecessary or awkward repetition, but used with appropriate disapproval and more and more people clueless have what the first and the last mean in this context, the merits of the methodology are debatable. See last.

generic- the word generic refers to a class or category or group of things - it's a flexible and relative concept. Generic can mean "generally" or "generally applicable" (referring to something belonging to a class or set that basically does everything in some way) or describe "similar elements/members". Its use is usually aimed at distinguishing a broad sense from a specific sense. Generic is the opposite of specific or unique or individual. Technically more generic refers to classes of things in taxonomy or formal classifications. The word ultimately derives from the Latin gender, meaning tribe or race.

Generic mark / generic mark– a word that was (and may still be) a brand name used in a general or generic sense for the article or substance in question, regardless of brand or manufacturer, e.g. B. Aspirin, Velcro, Hoover, Sellotape, Durex, Li-Lo, Bakelite, Zippo, Coca-Cola etc. Many generic brand names have entered the language so people don't realize that the word is a registered and protected trademark/ was. Surprisingly, there are many such names. Corporations and other generic brand owners often dismiss or deny the effect because "intellectual property" is legally harmed and its value and security as an asset is reduced (allowing competitors to sell similar products). However, there is a powerful side effect whereby generic drug brand owners can have an immensely reputable and popular reputation that can be used to unleash many other benefits and opportunities if managed creatively and positively. It's, as the saying goes, "having a good problem". Check out a long list of generic marks in the business dictionary.

Gerund– a verb used in noun form, usually with the suffix "ing", for example "when push comes to shove" (as a noun) or "it's the screaming and wailing that bothers people" (both screaming and also laments are gerunds here). From the Latin gerundum, which is the gerund of the Latin verb gerere, to do.

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Gerund- a verb used in the form of an adjective with the meaning or sense of "(the verb) gets done". Gerund constructions do not arise in English like gerunds, but instead appear in words that came into English from Latin, usually ending in 'a', for example 'quod erat demonstrandum' ('that should be demonstrated', abbreviated QED, later used to prove something). Interestingly, the name Amanda is a (feminine) gerund, meaning "(she) must be loved". The words referendum, agenda, and propaganda all derive from Latin gerunds, which turn a verb into an adjective, meaning that it is necessary to fill the verb.

Parada Glotal– a consonant sound produced by the obstruction of exhaled airflow (when vowels are being produced) by the sudden closure of the vocal tract, particularly the folds of the glottis (the opening of the vocal cords), which may be followed by an immediate reopening of airflow to allow the speaking can be continued. Thus, glottal stops can occur at the end of words or during words, for example in Cockney and "Estuary English" (a dialect of Greater London and neighboring communities), where in English they usually replace a formal phonetic letter, usually a 't', which then known as the 'drop' letter. The glottic stop, while very common in the language, is not officially in the English alphabet, but is in certain foreign languages, particularly in the Arabic countries.

glyph- a single smallest unit (symbol) of typographic meaning (writing/printing symbols), ie a symbol, the presence or absence of which changes the meaning of a longer word or message. All letters are glyphs. Diacritics are generally considered glyphs. More and more computer symbols are considered glyphs. A dot over an "i" or "j" is not traditionally considered a glyph in English, although it is a glyph in other languages ​​where only a dot has independent meaning.

-Chart– a common suffix referring to a word or visual symbol, or denoting something written or drawn, or a visual representation, e.g. B. in the words autograph, photo, etc. From the Greek graphos, which means written, written.

Graphem– the smallest semantic unit (meaning) of written language, roughly corresponding to a speech phoneme. Graphemes include letters of the alphabet, typographic ligatures, Chinese characters, numerals, punctuation marks, and other single symbols of writing systems.

hashish- also called the "pound sign" (#), and in the US/Canada and nations using American slang, the "pound sign" as it alternatively refers to the symbol for the pound sterling (pound sterling) of the United Kingdom. The hash/pound symbol often appears in the lower right corner of the phone keypad and is important for confirming many telecommunications and features. The hash symbol has also gained prominence in computer and internet functionality and data organization, as in the “hashtag” in particular.

Hashtag– A hashtag is the use of the number sign (#) as a prefix for an identifying name that refers to content or data of any kind or similarity that can be sorted, grouped, or analyzed, most popularly in modern times on social networking sites like Twitter . In fact, the use of the hash symbol for computer analysis and classification purposes first began in Internet broadcast chat systems, first developed in the late 1980s. The hashtag is a great example of simplification, increasing rationalization, codification, and internationalization of language and in particular , for this purpose the integration of numbers and symbols into words and letters and electronic communications in order to increase the speed and accessibility of communication and reduce the number of characters necessary to convey a specific meaning, as well as for organization and dissemination of data related to the communication.

twenty days– a kind of tautology that expresses two aspects or points separately for dramatic effect or emphasis, rather than combining them (in a more obvious and efficient way), e.g. “rain and damp fell incessantly…”

holonym- a whole in relation to a part of the whole, for example the word "car" is a holonym in relation to "wheel" or "engine". From the Greek holon, everything, and onuma, name.

Heteronym– Heteronyms refers to any two (or more) words that have the same spelling but have very different meanings, e.g. B. key (for a door or lock) and key (in music). If the sound is different, these words are also known as heterophones. If the sound is the same, these words are also called homonyms. Conversely, heteronymous also refers to single words that are quite different but mean the same thing, either due to geographic differences, e.g. to different etymologies, e.g. sofa and sofa or dog and dog. From the Greek heteros, other, and the suffix 'onym', referring to a kind of name.

Heterograph– a less common term and the same as a heteronym, ie one of two or more words with the same spelling but different meaning and different origin, and can be pronounced the same or different.

heterophon– This is a heteronym that is pronounced differently from its cognate words (i.e. the other words that make each a heteronym). From the Greek heteros, other, and telephone, sound or voice. Examples of heterophones are entry (entering and putting someone in a trance), rowing (rowing a boat, and rowing means arguing), wind (a wind that blows and winds a clock).

Heteronym– one of two or more words with the same spelling but different meaning and origin, which can be pronounced the same or different. Each word looks like the other but has a very different meaning. A heteronym is a type of homonym and is equivalent to a heterograph. From the Greek hetero, another. For example sewers (sewers/sewers), bow (made with ribbon/waist bend), thread (plot/power boat).

Homo-– a common prefix meaning “equal”, even from the Greek homos.

namesake– Homonym refers to any of two (or more) words with the same pronunciation or spelling but different meaning and etymological origin, e.g. A homonym with the same spelling is also called a heteronym. A homonym that involves a different spelling is also known as a homophone. Homo is a prefix from the Greek homos, meaning the same.

homograph– one of two or more words with the same spelling but different meaning and usually different origin.

Homophon– a word that sounds like another word but has a different meaning and spelling, for example flour and flower.

Heteronyms, heterophones, heterographs, homonyms, homophones, homographs – explanation matrix

Please note that the definitions of these terms contain a lot of overlap and similarities. Language experts cannot agree on certain precise and minutely detailed differences.

same -> Sinn if Orthography origin examples
Heteronym anders d o s even anders Key (Music)/Key (Padlock)
heterophon anders anders even anders entrance (entrance) / entrance (hypnotize)
Heterograph anders d o s even anders Key (Music)/Key (Padlock)
namesake anders same (or) (or equal anders medium (pretentious)/medium (not very sensitive)/medium (poor) - flower/flour
Homophon anders even anders anders weigh/manners – write/correct – flower/flour
homograph anders d o s even d o s entrance (entrance) / entrance (hypnotize)

(NB. It can be helpful to some extent to understand the confusing relative and overlapping meanings of these terms. Remember that "telephone" refers to sound, "nymic" refers to word/name, and "graphic ' refers to the spelling - I say 'to a small extent' because even with this knowledge the confusion is still difficult to fully resolve, so care must be taken when using any of these terms in an absolutely fixed sense.)

Hypo-/Hyper-– These two common prefixes mean (loosely) “above/above” and “below/below” respectively, from their Greek origins, huper (above) and hupo (below). If you memorize these two simplex prefixes, you will understand hundreds of different terms.

Hyperbel– Exaggeration or excessive description used for dramatic purposes or derived from emotional responses rather than precise or scientific reasons. For example: "I'm so hungry I would eat a horse..." or "I've told you a thousand times..." From the Greek huper, on, and ballein, thrown.

nickname / nickname– Interestingly, we use these words every day and understand their meaning and placement, but probably don't know how they are technically called, i.e. a hypernym is a category or group name within which there are different types or types, or a general term within of which there are terms of various more specific types. For example, "bird" is a hypernym (group name) relative to "sparrow," "eagle," and "pelican" (which are group hyponyms or hypernyms of "bird"). "Animal" in turn is a hypernym of "bird", which in turn is a hyponym of "animal". "Creature" in turn is a hyperonym of "animal". All hyponyms can also be called exactly by the name of their hypernym, but not vice versa, for example every hammer (hyponym) is a tool (hypernym), but not every tool is a hammer. Hyperonym comes from the Greek huper, above, beyond. A hypernym is also called a generic or generic term.

hyponym- this is a sister term (or more precisely a subordinate term) of hypernym and refers to something that is in some category, e.g. B. "sparrow", "eagle" and "pelican" are all hyponyms in a category called "bird". (“bird” is the hypernym in reference to given hyponyms). A hypernymic word can always be properly referred to as a hypernymic word (e.g., "golf" is a "game," like any other hyponym for "game"), but the reverse is not true (i.e., a "game"). . ' is not always 'golf'). Every word in the language is a hyponym because every word refers to something that is part of some kind of group. Hyponym comes from the Greek hupo, below, which is a good way to remember that hyponyms are "beneath" a hypernym. A hyponym is also referred to as a secondary term.

-UE- "i" is an increasingly common prefix denoting "Internet" and indicating connectivity and functionality related to Internet technologies. I'm open to suggestions as to when the i prefix was first used in this way. The Apple group was able to claim the first dominant use worldwide. Apple has many brands covering i prefix usage (mainly iPhone, iTunes, iPad, iPod). Apple TV was reportedly going to be called iTV until British broadcaster ITV (Independent Television) objected or threatened legal action.

Symbol– a symbol that stands for something – Icons are increasingly becoming significant elements of modern communication, so we can envision future alphabets made up of many icons, just as they will need to accommodate numbers and other symbols alongside the traditional letters. Show symbol in business dictionary.

language- a word or words more generally that have developed a recognizable figurative meaning through common usage to refer to or describe something in non-literal symbolic terms. Languages ​​can be widely recognized or only understood by a small group, for example because of locality or a common interest. Languages ​​are full of idioms; Many clichés are figures of speech, as are many similes and metaphors. An idiom is generally an expression used commonly by a group of people, as opposed to a figurative expression created by an author or other writer for a single use within the work created and not used more frequently. Languages ​​often appear in the dialect of geographically or culturally defined groups. The word idiom derives from the Greek idios, "to possess" or "private".

I mean– a common abbreviation of the Latin term “id est”, meaning “d. h.” means, e.g. B. for a clarification or explanation or list related to the immediately preceding note or point. In most usages, the full meaning of 'i.e.' is basically "I mean...", for example: "His travels took him to the capitals of England, France and Portugal, i.e. London, Paris and Lisbon..." Or: "Today a lot of detergent and other chemicals are used to clean things clean, although the only cleaning agent you will need most of the time is “universal solvent” i.e. water”.

Flexion– also spelling inflection – in linguistics, inflection refers to the change in pitch or pitch or modulation of the human voice, or in grammar to the change of a base word (lexeme) – its ending or beginning or spelling – around time, gender, mood to change, person, voice (either grammatically active or passive, i.e. diathesis), number, gender and case. The inflection of verbs is called conjugation, and the inflection of nouns/adjectives/pronouns is called declension.

intellectual property– Often abbreviated to IP, “intellectual property” is a legal term commonly used to refer to created works such as writings, artworks, trademarks, designs, music, inventions, etc. official in any form and may not be copied or exploited without the permission or license or other permission of the "rights owner". By implication, intellectual property generally has a commercial value which, while relatively 'intangible', can be substantial (in the case of popular brands and mass-produced goods) and reflected in official financial accounts. Typically, intellectual property is registered in some way to increase awareness and existing or proprietary protections beyond the existing natural copyright of originally created works. Examples of registered intellectual property are: patented inventions, designs, trademarks and registered trademarks, books, poems, photographs, sculptures, processes and systems, software, written and recorded music. There are different registrars for different types of work and different geographic areas.

Internationales phonetisches Alphabet (IPA)– an important and widely used phonetic alphabetic system developed by the International Phonetic Association to represent the sounds of vocal speech. The most obvious purpose of the alphabet is to show how words and letters are pronounced. The IPA is used by technical and professional linguists and lexicographers, as well as others involved in the study and teaching of spoken language. Its word representations appear alongside most entries in many language dictionaries using the Latin alphabet. The IPA is an extremely comprehensive system, comprising (as of 2005) 107 letters (consonants and vowels), over 50 diacritics, and other marks denoting the length, pitch, stress, and intonation of word/letter sounds. Because diacritics and other modifiers can be used in various combinations with letters, the potential for many thousands of different sounds arises. The points of articulation explain where in the mouth and vocal tract these sounds are produced. The image on the right links to a much clearer PDF from International Phonetic Language (2005). The PNG image and PDF graphic are published here for reproduction with the following permission:

What belongs to a language are the rules for combining words to form acceptable phrases and sentences. - Wiki cuộc sống Việt (3)

(Grafico IPA, https://www.langsci.ucl.ac.uk/ipa/ipachart.html, verfügbar ohne Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported. Copyright © 2005 International Phonetic Association).

Ironies/Ironies– In language, irony refers to the use of words that intentionally carry a meaning or interpretation quite different or opposite to the literal or apparent meaning of the words or statements themselves. Irony is a difficult concept for some people to grasp, partly because it requires a fairly deep understanding of the context and attitude of the writer/speaker. When irony is interpreted "at face value" or according to the obvious initially obvious meaning, the reader/listener gets a false sense of the word that can falsely suggest that the author/speaker and their communication are offensive or silly. . Irony is similar to sarcasm, although it encompasses a much broader range of linguistic effects that can operate at a deeper and broader level. For example, the overall nature of a character, plot, or situation in a story can be ironic, while the concept of sarcasm is essentially limited to the tone of communication. Irony can also be used for various effects like comedy, dramatization, pathos, etc. while sarcasm is more used for quick humor, negative comments, insults, belittling, and angry remarks.

word of Janus– an autoantonym, i. H. one of two words with the same spelling but opposite meaning, such as B. fast (firmly fixed and fast moving). So called because Janus, the Roman god of beginnings, transitions, doors, passageways, etc., is traditionally depicted with two faces, simultaneously representing the view into the future and the past. Incidentally, Janus is also derived from January, in the sense of the beginning or gateway to the new year.

together– In linguistics, a union is the way in which two consecutive syllables or words are joined (mainly audibly) in order to distinguish the sounds of the words and thus allow the full meaning of the construction. A union of syllables and words prevents everything from turning into a continuous flow of meaningless sounds. The joining together of movement in words and sentences sometimes creates alternative meanings (funny, clever, etc.), the effect of which is called an oronym.

to confront / to face– To juxtapose (two ideas, concepts, points, etc.) means to place or express two different or opposite things to create an emphatic or dramatic effect. A juxtaposition is the result or act thereof. For example (the image or description) of a homeless man begging in the street outside Buckingham Palace would be a juxtaposition. The phrase "take it or leave it" is a very simple juxtaposition. A juxtaposition often exaggerates or creates a competitive effect, although in fact the two "competing" elements must not conflict with one another or be a rigid choice between either/or. A juxtaposition can be used for funny and uplifting purposes, like in poetry, drama, movies, etc., or for more negative, cynical, manipulative purposes, like in politics and marketing.

Latin– the language of ancient Rome and still widely used as the language of science, astronomy, administration, law, etc. Latin is one of the fundamental root languages ​​of the development of the European language, especially the many “Romance” languages, including Spanish, Portuguese, French , Italian and Romanian. Latin, mainly through French, had a significant impact on the development of the English language. The traditional English alphabet (along with those of the Romance languages) is known as the Latin alphabet because it has its origins in Old Latin. Many Latin terms survive in everyday English, particularly those related to business, technical definitions, law, science, etc.

latest- the last element of a list or the second of a colon. See eg.

Leon– leet, also known as eleet or leetspeak, is an alternative alphabet for the English language used primarily on the Internet. It uses various combinations of ASCII characters to replace Latin letters (standard English script). The word lelet for lelet is I337. Here is a long example of Leet-style speech.

Lexeme– the basic form of a word, without tense change or other inflection. Most words in dictionaries are lexemes. Examples of lexematic forms are correr, sonreir, dar, chico, niño, rubio; while inflections of these lexemes include, for example: run/ran/ran/runner, smile/smile/smile/smile, gave/giver/given, boys/childish, children/childish, blond/blond/blond.

It is bound– In typography and writing, a ligature is an unusual way of joining two letters or other typefaces, such as the ampersand. "Unique" here refers to articulation not typical of the handwriting. Typographers do not generally agree on which articulated forms technically qualify as slurs, for example the forms æ and œ, which are now considered by some to be distinct vowels/symbols in their own right, rather than how they were historically articulated. Incidentally, such a disqualification for these and similar forms of double letters would also render the term diphthong inappropriate given its definition.

literally / literally– originally and technically literally/literally refers to the use of language in such a way that (the phrase or statement etc.) means exactly what the words say, i.e. there is no exaggeration, metaphor or symbolism in the language and hence, hence, the words must be understood as a clear and true statement of fact. However, in more recent, informal usage (from the late 20th century onwards) the term 'literal' is often (and no doubt very incorrectly) used to mean exactly the opposite, i.e. that the idiom in question is figurative or symbolic or (usually) grossly exaggerated and very different from the true truth. For example: "I literally told him a million times..." or "He was so angry he literally smoked out of his ears..." This is an example of how "wrong" becomes "right" through "popular" will use. In this sense, the term is potentially very confusing, as the term 'literal' in common usage can mean that something is fully factual and true, or conversely, that something is grossly exaggerated or distorted. The listener/reader/audience must decide. Usually the statement itself, the context, the situation and the speaker/writer together indicate whether the term "literal" is used in its original technical meaning (i.e. factual/real) or in its later broad informal meaning (i.e. say symbolic). becomes /metaphorical). /exaggerated). Statements such as "I was literally sweating profusely" and "I was literally climbing walls in pain" are obviously metaphors and therefore not technically "literal" or factual, while statements "Our flight was literally delayed a full day" and " I literally hung my head in shame" could technically be "literal" and factual. The term 'literal' can be confusing because of the similar words 'literature' and 'literary', which correctly encompass symbolic and figurative writing (in books, poems, plays, etc.). In any case, the original technical meaning derives from the Latin equivalent "literalis", again from litera, which means "letter of the alphabet".

litotes– the use of euphemisms for emphasis, mostly of the opposite meaning (i.e. it is actually a subtle and ironic way of exaggerating or exaggerating), and often in a humorous way, particularly, but not necessarily including, the use of the 'double' negative” – for example "that's not bad..." in relation to something considered very good, or "not even half..." to emphasize an expression of "quite" or "quite" or "very". Too many examples of litotes have entered general discourse for us not to regard them as euphemisms. For example: "I will not regret it..." (meaning I will be happy); "Not the sharpest knife in the drawer..." (meaning stupid); "Not the fastest..." (meaning very slowly or the slowest); "I was a little hungry..." (meaning I was starving); or "I know a little about..." (meaning I know a lot about...). The word litotes comes from the Greek litos, meaning flat or sparse. Litotes is a form of sarcasm. Litotes are also traditionally referred to as meiosis.

Trademarks/Logos– a word part of Greek origin (morpheme) or prefix meaning “word” and “words”, e.g. B. in the modern word logo (identifying symbol of a brand or company, etc.).

-Logo– abbreviated as log in American English, logue is a suffix denoting a type of language, that is, a communication, and often a series of spoken or written communications, such as those used in catalogue, dialogue, monologue, prologue, analog , etc. From the Greek logos, word or reason.

bad behaviour– the incorrect substitution of a word with a similar-sounding word, usually in speech and with humorous effects, often used as a comedic device in light entertainment television shows and other forms of comedy. The term derives from a character named Mrs Malaprop in Richard Brinsley Sheridan's 1775 play The Rivals, whose lines often contained such errors. Other writers, notably Shakespeare, have used this technique without calling it such. Lord Byron is said to have been the first to specifically refer to a malaprop as a misplaced word substitute, in 1814. The term is much less popularly referred to as Dogberryism, after the middle-class policeman character Dogberry in Shakespeare's As You Like It, who makes similar linguistic errors.

matronenhaft- a name derived from a mother or female ancestor. From the Latin mater, mother. Also called a metronome. See also patronymic.

Meta-– an increasingly common prefix that refers to the use of substitute forms or “hidden” forms (words, speech) in place of what is normally visible or openly accessible. The increasing frequency and popularity of the 'meta' prefix in the language is largely due to the computer age where so many forms of communication are encrypted or encoded by process/data/etc. to be accompanied. hidden. Meta is Greek for with/through/[named] after.

metamensaje- the underlying meaning, real or hidden, of a message or information/data/presentation, as opposed to the message originally taken and most obviously seen in the message. See meta prefix.

Mitosis- traditionally synonymous with litotes - i.e. intentional sarcastic/humorous euphemism, often including the use of double negatives (e.g. "That's not bad..." meaning very good) to emphasize or ironically hint at the amazing nature of something and to suggest otherwise. Meiosis is a late medieval English term that arose around 1500, from the Greek, spelled and meaning the same (meiosis = euphemism), from meion, meaning less.

metaphor– a word or phrase used symbolically to represent and/or emphasize another word or phrase, typically in poetic or dramatic writing or speech, for example “his blood boiled with anger” or “his eyes were wide open glued to the screen". Concentration'. A metaphor is similar to a simile, except that a simile uses a word like "like" or "like" to make a comparison, albeit possibly greatly exaggerated, while a metaphor is a literal statement that cannot be true. "The critic felt as if he were drowning in a tide..." is an analogy, while "The critic was a tide that drowned him..." is a metaphor. Meta is Greek for with/through/[named] after, hence the Greek translation/derivation of metaphor, metaphor, from metaphorein, transferred.

metasyntactic– a technical description of the use of substitute words in the language when the word(s) cannot be identified for any reason, be it lack of time, care, knowledge or permission etc. . See meta prefix. and syntax. See also wildcard names.

Meronym– Simply a meronym means “part of”, e.g. a window is a meronym relating to a house, and a hammer is a meronym relating to a set of tools. More specifically, a meronym is a word that technically refers to a part of something but is used to refer to the whole, for example: "all aboard" (where "hands" is part of each crew member, but that word is used as a meronym to refer to the occupation) or "Feet on the street" (where "feet" is a meronym for people who are on the street"). From the Greek meros, part, and onoma, name. Meronym is the opposite of a holonym (a whole in relation to a part of the whole).

Metonymie- Word/phrase used to represent the function to which it is associated - similar to a metaphor - for example the term "Number Ten" is a metonym for the office and authority of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (in conjunction with the head of the office at 10 Downing Street). "The bottle" is a metonym for alcohol; "the crown" is a metonym for monarchy; “Brussels is a metonym for the EU institutions; "(there will be) tears" is a metonym for (expected) emotional disturbance; "Twickenham" is a metonym for England's Rugby Football Union; "the rope" and "the chair" are metonyms for the death penalty; "under the scalpel" is a metonym for surgery; "Eye closed" is a metonym for sleep etc. From the Greek, metonymia, "change of name".

metronome- a name derived from a mother or female ancestor. More commonly referred to as a matronym. The expression "Mother Earth" is perhaps the most basic universal example of all. More specifically, each girl is given a metronym/matronym if she is named after a mother, grandmother, or other woman in the ancestral line.

wrong name- an inaccurate or incorrect term, name or designation, particularly if established in vernacular or official usage, although a misnomer may also be a simple one-off error in reference to or naming. There are many different types/causes of wrong names. Some misomers first emerge as correct and precise terminology, but later become misnomers as the meaning of the language changes over many years. "Ringing" a phone is a misnomer because phones no longer have ring tones. Also, when people talk about "flushing" when referring to the flushing of a toilet, that's a misnomer because toilets in general don't have flushing mechanisms anymore. Indian Food "Bombay Duck" is a misnomer because it's actually a dried fish. A "contradiction in terms" or an oxymoron can also be a misnomer. Generic marks are misleading designations. Misunderstood scientific phenomena often lead to misnomers such as the term "shooting star" which are technically meteors. Similarly, "lightning" is a misnomer as it is actually a depiction of lightning. A pencil's "lead" is a misnomer because it's graphite. When we suggest that someone "catches a cold" because they don't wear enough clothing during the winter, that's a misnomer, since a cold is a virus and cannot be "caught" or caused by cold weather. Many creatures are misnamed because a species is inferred from similar appearances. For example, a "Caranguejo-rei" is not a Caranguejo, a "Koala" is not a bear, and a "Cão da Pradaria" is not an A dog. Changes in legal terminology can also lead to inappropriate names, e.g. B. It is inappropriate to refer to sparkling wine as "champagne" if it does not come from Champagne in France. The term "football club" is misleading as the "club" is in most cases a commercial enterprise. There are thousands of other misnomers in common use, and people often don't realize that the terms are technically incorrect. A misnomer should not be confused with a metaphor, which is an intentionally symbolic term for dramatic effect.

mnemonic- a "memory aid" for a specific thing (rule, process, concept, theory, etc. or task or mental note). Examples of types of mnemonics include acronyms (including “acronyms”), stories, quotes, etc., and the ancient practice of tying a scarf in a knot (to remind the owner to remember something). The word mnemonic is pronounced nemonic and often misspelled numonic. It's from the Greek mnemon, be careful. The study of memory development and support is called mnemonics or mnemonics. See the Business Dictionary for more information on mnemonics.

Modal verbs– an additional verb that expresses necessity or possibility from the point of view of the writer/speaker's belief or attitude, i.e. the verbs: must, should, want, should, could, would, can, may, could.

(Video) War in Heaven and on Earth [Living Spiritually Aware]

modality– an aspect of language that expresses necessity or possibility from the point of view of the writer/speaker's belief or attitude. See also humor.

Modulation– in linguistic modulation, it refers to a change in intonation in the voice.

Mondgrün– a misinterpreted and misconstrued word or phrase from a published or quoted passage of text (obviously heard and not read), especially in song lyrics, poems, dramatic speeches, etc. Cases defined as an oronym. There is also some overlap with the term corn egg (which amounts to deliberate malapropism and hybrid pun). The term monograde was suggested by American writer Sylvia Wright in a 1954 Harpers magazine article The Death of Lady Mondegreen, in which she referred to her own longstanding misinterpretation: "And Lady Mondegreen" instead of the true "And put it on the green". ' (this is the last line of the first stanza of the 17th century Scottish ballad 'The Bonny Earl O'Moray'). Mondegreens often show up in song lyrics because the art form is full of weird words and phrases anyway, and it makes it very easy for the imagination to accept even pretty ridiculous misinterpretations. Popularly cited mondegreens include the following (and interestingly, the first two examples would have been suggested by the singers themselves, who on a few occasions in live performances have intentionally sung the mondegreen instead of the correct lyrics):

  • „There's a toilet to the right“ statt „There’s a bad moon going“ in „Bad Moon Rising“ von Creedence Clearwater Revival.
  • "Excuse me while I kiss that boy" instead of "Excuse me while I kiss the sky" in Jimi Hendrix's "Purple Haze."
  • „Ants are my friend“ statt „The answer, my friend“ in Bob Dylans „Blowin’ in the Wind“.
  • "I'll fuck you" instead of "I'll suck you" in the T-Rex game Jeepster (although Marc Bolan didn't try too hard to articulate an S instead of an F, and cynics might suspect that's something inappropriately above the line 'Girl I'm just a vampire for your love' was just a ploy to allow TV and radio censorship to dodge in some barely concealed, intentionally lewd way).

monotongo- a single vowel - compared to a diphthong and a triphthong. A monophthong is also called a pure vowel because it is constant and does not involve voice changes. See also diphthongization and monophthongization, which is an extremely fundamental aspect of language development throughout humankind.

Humor– In grammar, “mood” refers to a feature of a verb that allows different expressions of possibility or necessity, called modality and illustrated with examples of modal verbs.

Mora– a somewhat unscientific unit of phonology that refers to and determines the “syllable weight” in words, which usually determines stress or strain. There seems to be no absolute quantification of a mora, except that a mora is a short syllable and two or three "moraen" represent proportionally longer syllables. The term monomoraic refers to one syllable of a mora. Dois Morae is Bimoraean. Tres morae is Trimoraan. The word mora comes from the Latin mora, to delay or delay.

morpheme– a part of a word that contains only a specific linguistic meaning or purpose, including prefixes and suffixes, and cannot be divided, e.g. B. single words like "to", "is", "in", "on" etc. .; Verbs like "go", "come", "take", "find" etc.; nouns like "love", "bread", "action" etc.; and elements forming larger word constructions, for example morpheme elements (separated by hyphens) in "underhand", or "over-confident" or "un-twitching-ing-ly", etc. Morph means form in Greek. The suffix 'eme' derives from the Greek phoneme, meaning sound/speech, as the morpheme follows the same structure as the French-English word phoneme (a distinctive sound in a word).

Neo-– a word prefix meaning “new” or “revived” (specifically, it refers to concepts, ideologies, etc.) – from the Greek neos, new.

neologism- a new word or (technically in psychiatry) a made-up word used by a person or child - a neologism is often, but not necessarily, attributable to a particular creator and is usually a very new word or with the potential to be be , introduced/adopted into conventional language and dictionaries (from Greek neos, new, and logos, language). The word "Google", meaning to search the Internet with the Google search engine, is a kind of neologism based on principles of the same name. The word "flup" (from "full-up") is an example of a neologism resulting from a contracted abbreviation, as is the word "pram" (a contracted abbreviation of the original word "perambulator"). There are many other types of neologisms, which effectively represent different ways in which new words evolve or are re-established.

-ness– a common suffix that usually converts an adjective or adverb, and sometimes a noun, into a noun expressing a quality, state, or measure of something. Obvious examples include words like happiness, sweetness, kindness, darkness, etc. More recently, the suffix "ness" has been used to create new or made-up slang, particularly for a specific situation, some of which may be quite funny or childish depending on your point of view and can be silly, such as B. "the dull". Beer is a problem for drinkers who like foam”, or “Eating too much makes you bloated”, or “The workforce often suffers from 'discomfort'. The suffix "ness" comes from the old Germanic languages. Other suffixes that achieve a similar effect are 'hood' (as in maternity), 'th' (as in force, from strong), and 'age' (as in nudity).

neutral– in the language, neuter refers to a gender that is neither male nor female – also from the Latin ne, no and uter.

Noun– a word that designates (is used) something or someone and is not a pronoun. Variants are proper nouns (a name of a specific person or place, usually in capital letters, e.g. John, Mary, Earth, Africa, Japan, etc.). Nouns that are not variants are also called "common nouns". From the Latin noun, name.

Nominalphrase– functionally equivalent to a noun, a noun phrase consists of two or more words that function as a noun, e.g. B. "Leek and potato soup" or "green color". A noun phrase can contain other noun phrases, for example "a two-liter can of green paint" or "the best days of our lives" or "the shops that were open during the storm". A noun phrase can be a subject or object, or perform some other noun function in a sentence, e.g. B. 'The party on tour from Spain visiting Iceland (noun phrase 'subject') - longed for (verb) for (preposition) (verb) back (preposition) to (preposition) - their homes in the warm sunny field (noun phrase 'object ').'

Object– In grammar, an object is a noun or pronoun that is determined by a subject in a sentence, for example “the cat (subject) sat (verb) on the (preposition) the carpet (object)” or “he (subject ) kissed (verb) be (object)'.

-ologia/-logia- a suffix denoting an area of ​​study or interest.

For the Lautmaler– a word or phrase that sounds like what it means or to which it refers, e.g. B. "bang", "cuckoo", "squeak", "skilfully skating on ice". Originally from Greek onoma, name and poios, to do.

-onym– the suffix “onym” is very common in this glossary – it refers to a type of name and specifically refers to a word that is related to another word. It comes from the equivalent Greek word onumon, from onoma, name.

Oronimo– a word or more generally two or more words that can be audibly produced typically by changing/shifting the union (union – pause or stress) between words/syllables or by creating a new break in the word (particularly another expression or sentence and another meaning. A commonly cited example is the phrase "scream" which can sound like "ice cream" when the joint is moved and vice versa. A well known amusing example is "four candles"/"fork handles". Oronyms allow for fun puns on people's names, such as "Teresa Green/Los árboles son verde" and "Ben Dover/Bow" etc. The term oronym is said to have been coined by writer Giles Brandreth in 1980, derived from oral, which is more spoken as read/written, although the technical and somewhat misleading prefix "gold" also implies an association with the word mountain. Other examples: Beanstalk/Beans talk; New Direction/Naked Erection, The Ironically Side-by-Side Therapist/The Rapist; and the famously rude: Whale Oil Beef Hooked / 'Well I'll be fooked', and even ruder Antique Hunt (fix it...). Some oronyms include the correct spelling of alternative words/phrases and/or related or ironic meanings, such as B. Manslaughter/people laughter. Oronyms misinterpreted from overheard song lyrics and poems etc. can also be generically referred to as mondegreens, which has a broader meaning. A popular and extremely entertaining category of oronyms can be found among website domain names (URLs) that accidentally or intentionally contain a double meaning (often rude or inappropriate and ironic), for example the now-famous pensite "penisland.com" (Penisinsel/Landstift ); a forum for experts "expertsexchange.com" and various websites dedicated to therapy professionals using the oronym "therapist" (therapist/rapist). Website domain names (URLs) are particularly prone to oronymic effects because the primary URL convention often involves sentences with no spaces between words. Other amusing examples of seemingly (perhaps) real website names or website names are: Italian energy website "powergenitalia.com"; the Dutch music festival 'hollandshitfestival.nl' and the wonderful ringtone site 'ringtoneshits4u.com'. There are many more. The name "Slurl" (a portmanteau of Slur and URL) seems to have been coined for these funny/obnoxious website oronyms by writer Andy Geldman, who appears in his book and website "Slurls" circa 2006.

Orthonym– the real name of someone or something, rather than a pseudonym.

Oxymoron– a contradiction in terms, usually contained in a very short sentence or phrase, such as (and including some well-established expressions): accidentally on purpose, alone in a crowd, bittersweet controlled chaos, deafening silence, open secret, sweet sadness, hard Love, etc. The oxymoron can also be involuntary and result from confused or hasty thinking/speaking.

Palindrome- a word or phrase that can be read backwards or forwards, e.g. B. "ma'am", "nurses run" and "never odd or even". Palindromes tend to get sillier and nonsensical the longer they last, for example 'Was that a car or a cat I saw?' or 'Eve, can I stab bats in a cave?' and 'Do geese see God?' Palindromic sentences also generally do not require punctuation to be reversible. Palindrome can also refer to reversible numbers, especially numeric dates, e.g. 3/31/13 (UK date format).

pangram/perfect pangram– a pangram is a sentence containing all the letters of the alphabet; usually a short phrase used to test or demonstrate text-based communication devices, materials, typefaces, etc. : "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog", with 35 letters (which can be reduced to 33 letters by using "A" instead of the first "The"). A "perfect pangram" is a sentence that contains each letter of the alphabet only once, i.e. only 26 letters. Minute proof efficiency aside, a "perfect pangram" is mostly a curiosity and creative challenge for language enthusiasts, although nobody seems to have found a "perfect pangram" that actually makes sense. The best example on Wikipedia (2014) is "Cwm fjord bank glyphs vext quiz", which needs to be translated: "Symbols carved into a mountain hollow at the edge of a bay have angered an eccentric person" ("cwm" is technical seen a loan from Welsh means steep valley). The best example of a "perfect pangram" that includes recognizable abbreviated dictionary "proper noun" initials and other abbreviations is probably: "JFK got my VHS, PC and XLR web test". Perfect pangrams that contain abbreviations and/or punctuation seem to command less respect; dozy fowl quak', the meaning of which is easy for most children to understand. "Big fjords vex quick waltz nymph" is only 27 letters and may be the best of all very short pangrams, but it doesn't really make any sense. The 36-letter pangram Pack My Red Box With Five Dozen Quality Mugs is a refreshingly no-nonsense, modern alternative to The Speedy Brown Fox. The Microsoft and Apple operating systems each used "Five screaming Zephyrs shaking my wax bed" to display the fonts. Regardless, many popular non-English pangrams produce delightful English translations (note: the non-English language versions are the pangrams, not the English translations given here), proving that the pangram's allure is truly international, for example: "A sobbing dragon spits on a driver who has arrived at a foreign camp” (Bulgarian); 'The wrong practice of xylophone music troubles all great midgets' (German); “A dust bat escaped through the air conditioner, which exploded from the heat” (Hebrew); "Lunch with water makes crooked faces" (Italian); and the wonderful Polish perfect pangram: "Go to the dungeon to get the married goose out of the doorway" ("Pójdź w loch zbić małżeńską gęś futryn!"). I'm open to all sorts of suggestions on the subject, especially a perfect English pangram, which makes a lot of sense...

Pro-– a very popular and widely used prefix originally meaning next to or next to and especially today “analogous to” (the word prefix) in the sense that something is different but similar, e.g. B. Paramilitary or medics. From the Greek para, meaning next to.

Paradox– a sentence, statement or situation that contains seemingly incompatible or contradictory elements and may actually be true or fact, e.g. For example, "Men and women cannot live without each other, but they cannot live together," or "People smoke knowing full well that it will harm them," or "A big fire burns faster than a small fire," or "Boys crave to grow beards, but men hate shaving their heads. The word paradox is Latin and originally in English (1500) refers to a statement opposing the accepted opinion, from the Greek paradoxon, opposite opinion, from for, in contrast to, and doxa, opinion.

Unit volume- a series of related and related sentences traditionally represented by an indented first line and/or an enlarged/embellished initial and/or a numbered period or bullet point and a line break at the end of the last sentence. The modern style increasingly dispenses with the indentation of the first line. Authors and editors etc. often abbreviate the term paragraph with "for". A paragraph can contain only one sentence or multiple sentences. This glossary contains entries that may be referred to as paragraphs. The word paragraph comes from the Greek for next to and graphos, to write/to write.

paralysis- a rhetorical technique of enhancing/exploiting a trait (usually negative) by declaring that it is not being exploited as much. For example, "I would not stoop to taking advantage of your past infidelities..." Same as praeteritio. A common response to a speaker who appears to be using paralipse, that is, making a comment while denying that the question is being asked, is to say, "But you just did it..."

Paranomasia- refers to the use or effect of a pun - where a double meaning or "ambiguity" of two words with the same spelling or similar word sounds creates an amusing, witty, or ironic effect. From "for", Greek for "beyond", to refer to something similar or an alternative, and "onomasia" meaning "to name", again from "onoma" meaning "name". Check out the collection of puns and double entenders.

paranimo/paranimo-a word which, in relation to another word, has the same root as the word and which has a similar or related meaning and which generally sounds similar, or a word which is derived from a foreign word and has a meaning, shape and sound similar , Examples: lovable and lovable; still and still (both derived from Latin quies, meaning still or to be still). To is Greek for next door.

ticket– a short fragment or chunk of words, spoken or written, usually from a single sentence to several paragraphs.

passive– In grammar, as applied to the diathesis/voice of a verb, the passive (as opposed to its opposite “active”) generally means that the subject experiences the action of the verb (through an object) – e.g. B. "Dinner (object) was cooked (verb) by the cook (subject)" (passive/diathesis), instead of active/diathesis: "The cook (subject) prepared (verb) dinner" (object), (active/diathesis ).

Pathos- a sad quality of speech, particularly dramatic or poetic, typically intended by the author/speaker to arouse pity, sympathy, emotion, tears, irritation, etc. in the reader/audience. From the Greek pathos, suffering.

patronymic– a name derived from a father or other male ancestor, from the Greek pater, father. See also matronym.

Persona– in the context of grammar and language, “person” refers to the classification/use of pronouns, possessives (to which things/actions “belong”) and verb forms, as they indicate the first person (speaker/writer, i.e. “I”, “ my", "we") or second person (the "addressee" or the person spoken/written to, i.e. "you", singular or plural), or third person (the "third", i.e. " he she it you'). When we write/speak in the "first person" we write/say "...I (or we) have done or seen or given or said etc. (this or that, whatever)" and we mean " I" and "my" or "we" and "our". When we write/speak in the "second person" we write/say "...you did or saw or gave or said etc. (this, that, whatever)", and we mean "you" and " you". When we write/speak in the "third person," we write/say "...was or is, etc." or "he/she was or is, etc." or "they were or are, etc." The The meaning of "person" and its effect on verbs also extends to singularity and plurality, for example the distinction between "I" and "we" (first person singular or plural) and "he". /sie /that' and 'they' (third person singular and plural respectively). In English, the word "you" works in both the second person singular and plural, although these words are different in many other languages.

Phonation– the specific aspect of linguistics concerned with the way in which sounds are produced using potentially extremely subtle control (or with undesirable effects) of airflow and the shape/flexion of body tissues in the area of ​​the mouth, particularly the vocal folds," "expressed" ( vocal folds) and also (depending on precise definitions and alternatives) related parts of the vocal body to change vowels, consonants and other vocal effects. Humans have dramatically extensive control over how they "express" wording, especially vowels, by controlling the vocal cords and larynx (voice box), and phonation generally refers to the study of these and the bodily processes involved.

Phoneme- any sound unit in a language that allows to distinguish sounds in words (i.e. sounds, not spellings), for example simply the different sounds of the letters p and b (when distinguishing pull and bull) and c, g and j (when differentiating the distinction between Cut, Mondongo and Schreck). The intricacies of phoneme theory are not difficult to grasp, it is simply individual sounds that make words sound different, although a detailed explanation of these effects through text-based information requires very complex phonetic symbols. The word phoneme is French, from the Greek phonema, meaning speech/sound. See also morpheme, which is a single indivisible unit of linguistic meaning or purpose.

phonetics– the study/science of speech sounds. Phonics is particularly concerned with the highly detailed sounds of words and syllables, letters, vowels, consonants, etc., and other minor vocalized effects that together form words and connections between words. From the Greek phone, meaning sound or voice.

Phonology– an aspect of linguistics concerned with the organization, use, functioning, etc. of sounds in languages. From the Greek phone, meaning sound or voice.

Phrase– a somewhat vague and widely used term referring to a short passage of words, usually between three and five or six words, or technically just one word at the beginning (much less often, theoretically) ten or a dozen words, if that the case is the meaning is limited to a single concept or expression of some kind. A sentence is technically a single concept or term: a brief statement, exclamation, statement, or question, and most commonly part of a sentence. Sentences can be written or spoken and occur in all types of verbal communication. If a word passage can be broken down into more than one group of words, each having an independent "independent" conceptual meaning, and especially if the passage is punctuated, then the combined passage is likely theoretically to be longer than a sentence, which is usually the case is called a phrase or clause. This sentence is an example sentence. So that is. Separated by this comma, this sentence contains two sentences. Less technically, many people would describe the sentence above as a single sentence. Therefore, the term may be ambiguous when applied to short punctuation marks. In common parlance, the term sentence is often used incorrectly to mean rather long passages or sentences, or even short paragraphs. Therefore, clarification is needed when the use of the term "phrase" has legal or other implications. For example, a one word phrase is "go" or "stop" or "why?" etc. A two word phrase is for example "don't smoke" or "keep calm" or "maybe tomorrow". Technically, it's difficult to imagine very long sentences that aren't long lists of individual items. The word phrase is derived from the Greek phrazein, to explain. See "Turn of Prayer."

phrasebook– a common term for a particularly light and selective foreign language translation dictionary, originally and specifically referring to a small or pocket-sized book containing only common words and phrases useful to travellers/tourists, as opposed to a traditional translation dictionary, that is relevant to students of the language concerned.

pillow– the typographic symbol (¶) for a paragraph, sometimes found in edited and published texts, although it usually exists only as a typographic mark, and also in frequently hidden computer code, where it often corresponds to a "carriage return" (a typewriter action, to start a new line). There are differing opinions as to the origin of the symbol and the name of the pilgrim crow, possibly from the French "pelagraphe", paragraph, or more poetically, "pulled (plucked) crow". The symbol seems to have evolved from a C with a slash indicating a chapter (Latin capitulum), possibly with other influences from the old C and slashes placed on manuscripts by scribes long ago.

Tomás- the quality of the vocal sound according to the wavelength, i. H. the range of high or low tones in the sound of the voice. The term pitch has more recently evolved to mean addressing a speech or presentation to a specific audience, both as a verb and a noun, e.g. B. “Suggest an idea” and “sales pitch”. Tone can also refer to the nature or quality of the style or attitude of a communication.

placeholder name- a replacement word (e.g. 'whatjamacallit', 'thingy', 'widget', 'thingamajig', 'oojamaflip', 'widget', 'gizmo', etc.), usually a 'nonsense' or a childish word, e.g anything or anyone that for some reason cannot be accurately named or remembered. The most popular examples according to Google "hits" in the late 2000s were: widget, hickey, gizmo, thingy, gimmick, thingie, jigger, gismo, gubbins, whatsit, thingamajig, doodad, whatamacallit, whatchamacallit, doohickey, thingo, thingamabob, thing , what is, dohickey, thing, what name, thing, what's his name, what's his name, thing, dojigger, thing, thing, kajigger, dooverlacky, doovalacky, doofer. Technically, the use of a placeholder name is metasyntactic, and A placeholder name is a metasyntactic variable very well defined for linguistics in terms of the usual field of computation as: "...A conventional variable name used for an unspecified entity whose exact type depends on context..."

places of articulation– Also called “points of articulation”, this linguistic technical term refers to the parts of the mouth involved in articulation (the control of speech sounds, especially consonants, by the flow of air through the points of articulation). vocal organs/parts that can be used to create/modify sounds). The theory of language generally lists about twenty places/points of articulation in and around the human mouth, many of which concern the position of the tongue. In general, points 1 through 11 are considered passive (they don't move much and become active), while points 12 through 20 are considered active (mostly move and affect other parts). These are usually offset points, although in reality there is a continuum of infinitely many points between each of these main points, creating an infinite variety of sounds:

  1. exolabial—upper lip
  2. Endolabial – Oberlippe
  3. Dental - upper teeth
  4. Alveolar: Gums just behind the teeth.
  5. Postalveolar - ridge in front of the roof
  6. Prepalatal: in front of the nipple
  7. Palatinate roof
  8. Velar - roof back
  9. Uvular - hanging ampulla
  10. Throat - upper part of the throat (pharynx)
  11. Glottis: entrance to the trachea (epiglottis)
  12. Epiglottis: aba at the base of the tongue and entrance to the larynx.
  13. Radical - root of the tongue
  14. Posterodorsal: anterior body of the tongue.
  15. Anterodorsal: posterior body of the tongue
  16. Laminal - cushion
  17. Apical - tip of tongue
  18. Subapical - under the tongue
  19. Endolabial - lower lip
  20. Exolabials: lower lip

What belongs to a language are the rules for combining words to form acceptable phrases and sentences. - Wiki cuộc sống Việt (4)

Plagiarism- copying someone else's creative (usually written) work or idea and claiming it as your own, better known as "passing it on". Plagiarism comes from the Latin plagium, "a kidnapping," in turn from the Greek word plagion for the same. See also copyright.

Plural-– in language and grammar this is opposed to the singular and refers to there being more than one (typically person/noun/pronoun) and the impact that such plurality has on verb forms and, to a much lesser extent in English, on Adjectives has, although in other languages ​​many or all adjectives vary according to singularity or plurality.

Pol-- a very common prefix meaning many or many, from the Greek polus, many, and polloi, many.

Polysemie– the existence of many possible meanings for the same word or expression (from Greek poly, many, and sema, sign).

polysyllabic– referring to a word with more than two syllables, from the Greek poly, many.

Wort trunk / trunk– a word formed by combining two words whose combination relates to the sense or meaning of the new word – for example, smog (smoke and fog), muppet (doll and puppet), and brunch (breakfast and lunch). There are hundreds of other examples, many very clever and funny. The word portmanteau comes from French and is a metaphorical allusion to a two-piece "portmanteau" box for carrying a case, from the separate French words porter (to carry) and manteau (case) - see portmanteau in the cliché origins listing for more origin details and examples.

latest– Draw attention to something by saying you won't mention/exploit/let it influence you e.g. your previous bankruptcy...'. Praeteritio (pronounced "praterishio") is a speech writing/speaking technique, typically used in a cynical and negative manner, sometimes humorously, for a critical purpose against a political or business opponent (individual/group/organization). In political situations, praeteritio can be a very subtle way of inferring the inferiority or incompetence of a competitor while implying negative behavior towards other competitors, for example, "...while others refer extensively to their criminal past. I'm saying your lack of experience and qualifications makes you the wrong person for the job...” The idiom “...not to mention...” is technically a prelude to a pretentious comment, although the phrase im Generally not is used, considered as such in general discourse. Praeteritio can also be used for positive purposes, for example: “...I don't claim to be the best candidate based on my past track record; Forget it; I'm the best candidate because I have proven references, the best team, and our plans have the most popular support...” Praeterititio has many equivalent terms: paralipsis/paralepsis, preterition, cataphasis, antiphrasis, and parasiopsis. Paralypse is probably the most common alternative term.

predicate– the part of a phrase or sentence that contains a verb and some information about the subject.

preposition– Prepositions are words of conjunction position/relationship such as: in, in, from, to, with, under, etc. A preposition expresses a relationship between two other words or concepts that usually (but not always) appears before a noun or object pronoun to position a preceding noun or subject pronoun and its action (verb) in relation to the noun in question. for example 'the cat sat on the carpet' ('up' is the preposition), or 'she went down the stairs' ('down' is the proposition), or 'she bought it for me' ('for' is the Preposition). Prepositions do not necessarily come between subject and object, for example in the sentences 'the world (object) we live (subject) (verb) in (preposition)' or 'in which world (object) we live (subject) (verb)' . Historically, the conventional rules of English dictated that a sentence should not end with a preposition, such as "Why did you go there?", although this is not considered bad grammar today. Examples of prepositions are: to, on, over, of, out, for, over, in, with, against, up, under, between etc. place, place.

  • One Preposition Trivia: Can you think of a suitable meaningful sentence that ends with seven consecutive prepositions? ... Scene Maker First: A mother goes downstairs to find a book for her son's bedtime story. When she comes back with a book about Australia, her son says: "Why did you buy a book to read from scratch?" (In this context, "Down Under" is technically a noun, but it's still a clever and fun word puzzle.)

prefix– a part of the word that precedes a word or stem of a word, e.g. B. "pre" (meaning before, as in prefix and prequalification) and "mis" (meaning wrong, e.g. misbehaving, erring), etc. . ) and "anti" (meaning against, as in antifreeze or anti-dispossession) and "homo" (meaning the same as in homogeneous, homosexual, although confusingly, "homo sapien" is Latin and literally means "wise man"). See also the suffix, which is a word ending. In recent years, the prefixes “i” and “e” have become widely used prefixes related to “internet” and “electronic”, e.g. B. Apple's iPhone, iTunes, etc. and email. Understanding prefixes is helpful in interpreting the meaning of new words. See for example poly- and hyper-/hypo-.

Pronoun– a word that takes the place of a noun – for example you, I, that, that, etc. From Latin pro, “of, in the name of” and noun.

Own name- a name (i.e. a noun) for a specific person or place or other entity, such as a brand or company that usually requires an initial capital letter, e.g. B. Rome, Caesar, Jesus, Scrabble, Texaco, etc.

proto-– a prefix meaning first, as a prototype, from the Greek protos, meaning first.

pseudopigraph– Literary or written works that claim to have been created by a prominent author but are essentially false, such as B. A work of art painted in the style of a famous artist, including a forged signature.

(Video) The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence of Belief | Francis Collins at Caltech

Pseudo-a prefix referring to a false or artificial version of something, from the Greek pseudos, false. The prefix pseudo is commonly added to all sorts of terms to indicate a falsification or imitation, especially something that is usually quite serious and well qualified, for example pseudoscience or pseudointellectual.

Pseudonym– an alternative name for a person or group, thing, etc., generally used to avoid using/disclosing the real name and given for marketing/image purposes or by others for various reasons because the pseudonym seems more appropriate considered, or simply that it is easier to pronounce and remember, or better translated internationally. Pseudonyms are most commonly associated with authors/writers (so-called pseudonyms), but pseudonyms can include stage or screen names (of actors), pseudonyms (also expressed as "aka" = "also known as" - often associated with criminals), or Being nicknames (especially widely used and recognized ones), usernames, names of titled or official persons, monarchs and popes etc. Examples of pseudonyms are: John le Carré, George Orwell, Joseph Conrad, Lewis Carroll, Mark Twain, Pope Francis I, CS Forester, John Wayne, Marilyn Monroe, Ellery Queen (actually two authors with a single pseudonym), Elizabeth R , Pelé, George Eliot (actually a woman with a male pseudonym), Scary Spice, Ayn Rand, etc. There are thousands of them. A real name is called an ortonym. The pseudonym comes from the Greek pseudonym, which means wrong.

call back– also called paronomasia, a play on words refers to a double meaning, using a word in place of another, more obviously contextual, word that sounds very similar or the same and may or may not have a different spelling, and that is different but related Meaning. The famous quote “Time flies like an arrow; Fruit flies like a banana" shows the pun on the word "flies". The quote "A broken window is a pain" contains the pun "pain" on window "pane". Puns can also contain more than one word as substitute and/or substitute words, e.g. B. "If a leopard could cook, would it change its pots?", replacing "its pots" with "its spots". Puns may also include phrases, for example "body industry regulation: bodies are weak and toothless," where "bodies are weak and toothless" refers to both decaying corpses and regulators without power or authority. See the Puns and Ambiguities collection for more examples.

score– Characters such as commas, periods (dots), question marks, etc., which indicate separations, pauses, stress, states, moods, propriety, etc., and which generally guide the reader/speaker in terms of flow, meaning, context, etc. of the relevant text. Punctuation is distinct from diacritics, which indicate the pronunciation of the letter/word sound. Here are the best examples of punctuation and some other characters that have punctuation or a similar effect on speech:

Notenname Symbol(e) Purpose/Use/Effect
Period/Period . Ends a sentence, a meaningful pause before moving on to the next sentence.
Come , Finishes a sentence, takes short pauses, connects sentences, or lists points.
semicolon ; Ends a sentence, a pause longer than a comma, shorter than a period.
colon : Precedes a list, example, quotation, or other referenced item with a pause, which matches a semicolon.
Question mark ? Prompts or demands an answer or consideration at the end of a sentence.
exclamation mark ! Emphasize the end of a sentence. Denotes loud speech or surprise or indignation.
hyphen - Ö - Join words with hyphens or prefixes or suffixes; an alternative to parentheses around a sentence; an alternative to a comma or semicolon; and alternative to the word 'until' in dates and times, etc.
Apostrophe ' Ö ' Denotes property, missing letters, or an alternative to language characters. The oblique style is traditional and ancient.
talk/arrange " " Ö " " Contribute and label language or quote or extracted content. The slanted style is an older traditional layout sometimes referred to as 66 99, with the layouts being called "Open Quote" and "Close Quote" respectively.
Unit volume Line breaks and indentation No punctuation, but still punctuation to break single passages, a pause longer than a period. The first line of the new paragraph is usually indented.
brackets ( ) [ ] Encloses and identifies relevant or useful additional or ancillary information that is not generally critical to the main point.
I'm going in March " Ö - " - It appears in columns and lists with the same meaning, i.e. "as above".
slash/comma / Alternative for 'or'; alternative to 'e' (in the combined sense); denotes an abbreviation of a two-letter term (e.g. w/e for weekend or weekend); file/directory separators for web addresses; line break display in typographical markup instructions/notes; means "divided by" in mathematics; and various others. Also called solidus, dash, slash and more, it is a very useful and powerful symbol.
Backslash Much less common in typography and typeface, but increasingly common in computerized communications, particularly in file and directory separators.
underline/underline _ Ö ___ Emphasize the underlined passage. As an alternative to the hyphen, a single underscore is used to create consecutive, unbroken file names and other electronic data.
asterisk * Ö ** Indicates that an associated note will appear later in the text, also marked with an asterisk. When repeating the technique, two asterisks, etc. are used to avoid confusion. Some publications also use asterisks as substitutes for offensive words.
Guillemets / Angled Quotation Marks / French Quotation Marks « » circle and designates speaking or quoting in some foreign languages ​​other than English as alternative language signals. It is named after the French printer Guillaume Le Bé (1525-98).

doubling– In language, reduplication refers to the repetition of a syllable or a sound or a similar sound to produce a word or a phrase. For example Mumbo-Jumbo, Higgledy-Piggledy, Helter-Skelter, Reet-petite, Easy-Peasy, May-Baby, Bananarama, Tuti-Fruiti, Rocker, Curly-Wurly, Scooby-Doo, Looby-Loo, Hurly-Burly, pac-a-mac, touchy-feely, in to win it, etc. All examples of reduplication are necessarily also examples of alliteration, although many examples of alliteration are not reduplication. Reduction usually involves repeating longer stretches of words than alliteration.

rhetoric– written or spoken to appear convincing or shocking. Typical users of rhetoric are salespeople, politicians, executives, teachers, etc. The term 'rhetorical question' denotes a question intended to make an impact, usually to make a statement or a point rather than an answer or to seek information. The word comes from ancient Greek, rhetor, speaker or teacher of an effective persuasion speech.

rights holder– the holder of legal rights (i.e. control, usually by virtue of creation and/or ownership), such as copyright or other intellectual property.

directory– a document title or set of instructions or rules or a statement of intent. Rubric generally refers to titles/rules found in formal documents, such as exam papers, or processes mandated by a government agency, such as the instructions on a parking ticket or license application. The origins of the word are intriguing, from Roman Latin where 'rubeus' meant red and 'rubric terra' referred to 'red earth' and its derived material was used to make an early form of ink. Roman practice was to use red ink for laws and rules, providing the link between red 'rubrics' and formal written instructions.

sarcasm– cynical or skeptical euphemism (including litotes), exaggeration, stating the obvious, exaggeration, or irony with negative effect, for example, to mock, criticize, ridicule, patronize, insult or disapprove of someone or to make something funny. Sarcasm is characterized by the tone of voice rather than the words themselves. Context is often critical to appreciating sarcasm.

Semantic/Semantic– Semantics refers to the meaning of language or, less typically, the meaning of logic. The word is commonly used to clarify that a disagreement can be semantic or a matter of semantics (interpretation of the meaning of the words used to frame the argument) and not a genuine disagreement about the issue itself. For example, it can be difficult to agree on training methods with another person until you first come to a semantic agreement on the word "training", i.e. whether "training" refers to skills, knowledge, attitudes, etc.

Semiotics/Semiology– Semiotics is the study of how meaning is conveyed through language and non-linguistic signals, such as symbols, stories and anything else that conveys meaning that people can understand. Semiotics is related to linguistics (the structure and meaning of language) and in a broader sense includes linguistics and all other signs, metaphors and symbolism. The processing aspect of semiotics is called semiosis. Semiotics comes to the fore in the form of stimulus-response compatibility in nudge theory. Within semiotics, the arrangement of words is called syntax and their study/science is called syntax. contains semioticsLogic, mianthropologisch[Humanity] factors, i. H. Effects are based on immutable logic (e.g. large ones tend to have more influence than small ones) and are also based on human factors such as genetics, evolution, culture and conditioning.

Phrase– A sentence is usually a sequence of words containing (at least) one statement, question, command, etc. fully and grammatically correct, mostly with predicate and subject, for example (and very briefly): ." (In this extremely short example, "I" is the subject and "I ate" informs the reader/listener of the subject. Technically it can a single word can be considered a sentence depending on the context, for example: "Why?" and "Yes". These single words can be called sentences because they are complete and grammatically correct statements. A longer example of a sentence with lots of punctuation marks is: “We ate at a restaurant, fish landed at the local port and vegetables grown in the restaurant's garden, all washed down with wine from a nearby vineyard, made especially memorable by the wonderful music, hospitality and attention of our hosts” .

Singular- in language and grammar this is opposed to the plural and refers to there being only one (typically person/noun/pronoun) and the effect this singularity has on verb forms and to a much lesser extent in English on adjectives, though In other languages, many or all adjectives vary according to singularity or plurality.

parable– a descriptive technique in writing, speaking, communicating, etc., comparing something symbolically with something else of more dramatic effect or image, e.g. e.g. "freezing cold", "dumb as a mouse", "hard as old boots", etc. The word "like" is common in similes, or a simile is often constructed using the word "like", for example "snow fell". like little silver stars" or "he ordered food off the menu because he hadn't eaten in a month". . A simile is similar to a metaphor, except that a simile uses a word like "like" or "like" to make a comparison, albeit possibly greatly exaggerated, while a metaphor is a literal statement that cannot be true. "He fought like a lion" is an analogy, while "He was a fighting lion" is a metaphor. The word parable comes from the Latin similis, like.

Jargon– informal language, normally understood by a group of people and not necessarily well or fully understood by others outside the group, used primarily in speech; written much less often. Examples are single slang words and entire "coded" languages, such as rhyming slang and cockney slang.

sheva/shva- a phonetically neutral short vowel, for example at the end of the word "sofa" - a bit like a very short "eh" or "ah" - is the same as a schwa or sh'wa - all come from the Hebrew language

snake case- compound words joined by underscores, which became popular in computer texts due to the advantages of avoiding spaces in file names, domain names and URLs (website/web page addresses), etc. See also CamelCase - no spaces, case sensitive - allusion to camel for hunchbacked word forms.

spoonism– an accidental or intentional reversal or exchange of wording between two words that produces two new words that may or may not be understandable and are generally considered amusing. A long-standing example is "...a cat jumps on your trains..." (instead of "falling on your paws"). The effect is named after Reverend William Archibald Spooner (1844-1930), Chancellor of New College, Oxford, who has long been considered error-prone. Apparently a Spoonerism is also known (very rarely) as Marrowsky, supposedly named after a Polish count who is said to suffer in a similar way. For more details on the origins and examples of Funny Spoonerisms, see the list of clichés and word origins.

Stamm- the stem - a "root word" - is the main or root part of a word to which other parts are added, such as B. a prefix and/or suffix. As an extreme example, the root of the word "anti-disestablishment" is "establish".

emphasize- In detailed linguistics and particularly phonetics, stress corresponds to the stress given to a syllable or syllables or other speech sounds within a word or words to determine or change pronunciation or to control some other audible effect of a word. Separately, and more generally, accent has an additional meaning in speech, relating to the stress on a specific word or phrase, as would be shown by stress or capitalization of accented sections of a passage of text.

object– In grammar, a subject is a noun or pronoun that governs (does something with or in relation to) an object in a sentence, for example “the lion (subject) chased (verb) the zebra (object)” or “ we". (subject) ) crossed (verb) over (preposition) the road (object)'.

Suffix- a word ending, which may, but more often does not, have its own word meaning, and usually derives from Latin or Greek, and acts as a connecting part in the construction of words and their meaning. There are many thousands of examples of suffixes, and almost inevitably virtually every word with more than one syllable contains a suffix, and many monosyllabic words also contain a suffix. Many suffixes change the meaning or tense of a word, for example the simple 's' suffix is ​​used in English to denote the plural. The suffix "x" denotes a plural in many English and French words. The suffix 'ness' (Old Germanic origin) refers to the state or measure of a term (typically adjective) that allows it to be expressed as a trait or trait, e.g. B. boldness, cheerfulness, rudeness, etc. to many surgical procedures. The suffix "ation" is widely used: it turns a verb into a noun (e.g. test, explanation and the recently popular "disorder" among financial market commentators). The suffix "age" is another word that evolved to express a measurable grade. Not surprisingly, the suffix 'onym' is perhaps more common in this glossary than anywhere else, for it means one type of name, and particularly one word related to another. Many words formed as combinations or contractions of two words use the first word as a prefix and the second word as a suffix, e.g. B. obvious word combinations like breakfast, closet, front, train, television, plane, pot, etc., and less obvious combination words like window and many thousands more. See also prefix, which is a morpheme or body part of the word that acts as the beginning of a word.

syllable– a single unit of pronunciation, usually involving a vowel with or without a consonant or two – perhaps best illustrated with examples of monosyllabic words: and, to, in, of, we, we, but, grab, grab, yacht, range , reach , strings, etc. and two-syllable words like: baby, table, angry, scared, confused, angry, etc. and three-syllable words like: vacation, enemy, ebony. As you can see, the number of letters and parts of words (morphemes) does not determine the number of syllables. For example, the word "anti-expropriation" has eleven syllables and only 28 letters. Each of the following words has ten letters but only one syllable: scraunched (the sound of walking on gravel); schmeltzed (transferred sentimentality); scroonched (firm), schrootched (crouched) and fastened (an old variant of fastened). The word syllable comes from the Greek sullabe, sun, together, and lambanein, to take.

Syllogism- a proposition in which a conclusion or "fact" is derived from two or more related "facts". For example: big cats are dangerous; a lion is a big cat; (therefore) lions are dangerous. Or: diamonds are precious stones; precious gems are sometimes stolen; (Therefore) diamonds are sometimes stolen. A syllogism can include more than two "facts" that together support the conclusion, eg: a mouse is bigger than a fly; a cat is bigger than a mouse; a horse is bigger than a cat; an elephant is bigger than a horse; (hence) an elephant is bigger than a fly (just like a horse and a cat).

equivalent– a word or phrase meaning the same or the same thing as another, e.g. '60s swinging' is used as a synonym for the optimism and liberated lifestyle of the time, and the term 'nuts and bolts' is used as a synonym for the technical details of a project or plan (from Greek sunonumon, from sun, with and onuma, name) See also antonyms, a word meaning the opposite of another.

Syntax– the study/science of the arrangement of words in language, and particularly in sentences, intended to convey clear meaning. The arrangement of words is called syntax, which is the syntactic root of the word.

Syntax– Syntax technically refers to how words and phrases are structured to form sentences and statements, and more generally to the study of language structure. The word derives quite logically from the Greek suntaksis, from sun, together, taksis, arrangement, from tasso, I organize.

Synecdoche– a word or possibly a short phrase that figuratively refers to people or things based on a significant component or effect found in the thing it represents, e.g. B. Referring to sailors as "hands" or cowboys as "arms" or members of a group as "heads" or observers as "eyes and ears".

Tautology- this has two main meanings - the first and simplest (sometimes called the semantic meaning) a tautology is a statement in which a point or description is repeated using different words that are generally considered to be grammatically incorrect (not factually incorrect) or wrong at best are clumsy assumptions and inefficient use of language, for example: "They arrived together at the same time..." or "An empty void..." or the all-too-common "At the moment...", or "Incredible feat defied faith..." or "Eggs and milk combined...". Usually the words 'and' and 'also' together in a statement make a very simple tautology (because 'also' and 'and' mean the same thing and therefore together constitute an unnecessary repetition of the same thing.) If the repetition (tautology) is a stylistic one or has dramatic effect, for example: "The last last breath...", the tautology is more acceptable and cannot be considered bad grammar. A tautology used for dramatic effect is similar to the hendiadis. Second (in a more theoretical or scientific context, sometimes called a logical or rhetorical tautology), a tautology is so much more complex and possibly so difficult to explain that people can resort to algebraic equations. A simple example is a statement that contains an assertion whose validity depends on the repetition of the same point within the statement, or put another way, a statement that is valid by virtue of the assertions or assumptions it contains z has always existed. he wanted to collect and protect gold because it is so valuable and desirable..." (We can neither discuss this nor prove it beyond the bounds of your own conjecture.) There are more complex mathematical and scientific interpretations of a tautology that are not included here in this glossary (since this glossary is mainly concerned with grammar and dia (everyday communication rather than scientific applications- and also because like most non-mathematicians, complicated interpretations completely confuse me.) Anyhow, simple-level tautologies are particularly intriguing , because they are so often used in political statements un d Media comments are used (and accepted without question by the majority of the public). Tautologies are often used to persuade others through argument rather than substance. Perhaps the best example of a persuasive tautology, even at the highest levels of leadership and government, is: "Our decisions and actions were right because it was the right thing...". Next time you hear this you will recognize it as a tautology, and if you hear it along with the qualification "...and God shall be my judge..." then be very concerned; the speaker simply says, "I am right because I say I am."

identity– originally meant and still mainly refers to a biological taxonomic name using the same word for genus and species, e.g. Vulpes vulpes, (the red fox). In language/linguistics, a tautonym refers generically and informally to a reduplicative word containing two identical parts, either as bye or candy.

Taxonomy- a structural organization of classifications, almost always hierarchical, like a family tree, with levels of categories/classes, each of which comprises subsets, which in turn comprise subsets. The concept of taxonomies was developed primarily in biology, but can now be found in classifications of almost anything, for example Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains.

excited– In grammar, the term “time” refers to the form of a verb indicating when the action took place in time, or some aspect of the continuity/completion of the action, in relation to the action itself and also to the moment in which the action was performed / event is spoken or written. The three main common tenses are: past ('I'm going'), present ('I'm going'), and future ('I'm going'). Some tenses are extremely complex, for example, "I should have gone." Please reply on a postcard what that time might be.

a- the word "that" is technically/grammatically "the definite article", e.g. "The bird fell from the sky" or "Muddy children need a bath". It is called "definite article" because it designates a specific person/thing that is known or can be identified from the context. This differs from the "indefinite article" (a or an), which refers to something in a non-specific or general way.

-for my– tomy is a common suffix occasionally used in language terminology (e.g. dichotomy) when referring to a process or situation requiring a solution, although the suffix tomy is much more common in medical procedure terminology ( vasectomy, lobotomy, etc.) is used. ) ); It comes from the Greek tommia, to cut.

Tomás- In speech, pitch generally refers to the quality of voice and vowels in terms of pitch, strength and other qualities of sound and style or mood, e.g. 'He spoke softly'. Speech tone can refer to qualities of sound, feel, attitude, loudness, rhythm, and virtually any other quality imaginable for verbal or even written or printed communication. In general, when it comes to communication, tone refers to the manner, type, or description of language and how meaning is conveyed.

Trade mark– a registered and protected name (or logo) of a product, brand or organization, usually represented by the abbreviation TM. Technically, the word/concept of trademark is not a grammatical or linguistic term, but trademarks are often very important to language and language development, especially when a trademark becomes "generic". A generic trademark, also known as a generic trademark or proprietary name, is a trademark or trade name that, contrary to the usual intentions of the trademark owner, has become a generic name or synonym for a general class of product or service, or trademark. Using a generic mark to refer to the general form of what that mark stands for is a form of metonymy.

Trichotomie– a three-part classification, mainly in the form of rules, laws, models, processes, etc. For example; Parent/Adult/Child in Transactional Analysis; the visual/audio/kinesthetic in the VAK learning model; and the traditional communication concept of features/advantages/benefits in sales and sales training. There are thousands of other rules, laws, principles, etc. trichotomous and can be found in every discipline and subject you can think of.

tritongo- a monosyllabic vowel (not a single vowel) that effectively contains or moves through three different recognizable vowel sound qualities. It comes from the Greek "triphthongos" which means "with three sounds". See also diphthong, which generally refers to the fact that a syllable that sounds like a vowel contains two different sounds. Monophthong refers to a monosyllabic pure vowel.

trisyllabic– a word or (technically in poetry) a line of poetry containing three syllables.

Trope– A trope is a word or phrase that is substituted metaphorically or symbolically to create an expression of some kind. For example, the phrase "get a crust" uses the word "crust" as a trope. The phrase "It's raining cats and dogs" uses the phrase "cats and dogs" as a trope. To say someone has "razor thinking" the word "razor" is used as a trope. From the Greek tropos, meaning "to turn back" or "way".

rotate set– an old term that refers to a specific way of using language (usually spoken) that is quirky, rude, funny, clever, or unusual. The term applies generally to a known/named person; much less often in a group. Often the term is used euphemistically and ironically, for example when referring to the use of rude, "non-PC" or offensive words, for example "You have an interesting sentence". The term can also be used literally, for example "She has a sharp/clever/funny sentence" when referring to someone whose speaking/writing involves such a trait.

Typing error– a colloquial abbreviation derived from the full meaning "error/typo", used by writers, publishers and printers, originally referring to an error (typically relating to spelling or punctuation) in the typesetting phase of publication, in difference to a factual error by a scribe/spelling. Today, the colloquial term is more commonly used to mean a "keyboard error" by authors of all stripes and by agencies working in the press and media, as opposed to an error due to misspelling or inaccurate facts by an author. Originally, the publishing process included clearly separated phases of writing/creation, then typesetting (on which printing plates were made), and finally printing. Sometimes there were misinterpretations or inaccuracies at the typesetting phase, which may or may not have been noticed prior to printing. These errors were called typos, and the term has survived and thrived into modern times. The technological development of publishing now allows authors and editors to control the final output much more reliably and directly, so that the term "typo" now simply refers to a keyboard error by the author.

Typography/Typography– the study or art of drawing and making letters and other symbols (glyphs) used in printing and other text reproductions, excluding calligraphy. The word "type" refers to the traditional capital letter blocks used in traditional typesetting and printing. The word typography derives from the Greek type, meaning form, and graphos, writing.

font– an old traditional word for what is now called typeface, or technically and traditionally a typeface family. A typeface used to refer more to a family of typefaces that included slightly different letter styles and other glyphs, all based on a main design.

Verb– Children are traditionally taught that a verb is “a word that works”, which is a good definition. We can expand it to "a word that does or happens." Technically, a verb is the "predicate" (describes what happens to the subject) in a phrase or sentence. Most utterances include at least: a subject (doing something, often acting on, affecting or experiencing the effect of, an object), an object (something affected, affected, or being affected by a subject), and a verb (describing the action or Affection). For example: the cat (subject) sat down (verb) on the carpet (object). It is very difficult to form a meaningful sentence without a verb. Some of the shorter sentences contain only a subject and a verb, for example: "He cried". "He" is the subject, "he was crying" is the verb, and there is no object. The sentence "it rained" contains the subject "it" and a verb "it rained" ("it" is a pronoun and technically a substitute for something implied like "the weather" or "this time" or "this place" ). The sentence "I was happy" contains "I" (subject), "was" (verb) and "happy" (adjective describing the subject). The sentence "I ran fast" contains "I" (subject), "I ran" (verb) and "quickly" (adverb describing the verb). The word "verb" is Latin, from "verbum" meaning "verb" and originally "word". A key aspect of a verb used is its "voice" or diathesis, which refers to whether the verb acts actively (the subject does something to the object) or passively (the object receives something done by the subject). .

verbal- The word "verbal" mainly means "made up of words", but usually refers specifically to spoken words, such as B. an “oral notice” (as opposed to a written notice). Technically verbal can also refer to something related to a verb, such as B. verbal meaning or verbal application (e.g. like as well as related to the flower which is a noun').

literally– an English term derived from Latin meaning “word for word” and referring to the citing or retelling of previous communications of any kind. It comes from the Latin verbum, meaning word.

Verbalphrase– there are several slightly different complex technical explanations for this, so it's easier to think of the definition as all parts of a statement (subject-verb-object) without the subject, for example in the statement 'Pedro went to the office' , is the verbal phrase "went to the office". In the utterance "The children were playing loudly in the garden", the verb phrase is "They were playing loudly in the garden". The Oxford English Dictionary defines a verb phrase as: '... a verb with another word or words indicating the tense, mood or person of the verb (the tense is past, present, future, etc.; the mood is akin to with modality, the speaker/writer sense being certainty, possibility, necessity, etc.; and person referring to first, second, or third, as in me, you, he, etc.)

slang- the language and/or dialect of the common people of a particular region or area, or the language of a group of people formed around a purpose, discipline or other interest. Slang can refer to sounds (accents) and/or to words and/or to the structure of spoken or written language. Vernacular can also refer to the native or native language. Vernacular is a noun although it looks like an adjective. The word derives from the Latin vernaculus, "native" or "domestic", curiously ultimately from verna, a "home-born slave".

Voice– also called diathesis – in English grammar, refers to whether a verb, including its related construction, is active or passive; For example, "the teacher gave the class" is an active voice/diathesis, while "the class was given by the teacher" is a passive voice/diathesis. Some other languages ​​offer a "middle voice" that is neither active nor passive. When communicating sensitively, it is often helpful to consider whether the active or passive voice is better for the situation, also considering the verb and context. Usually diathesis/passive verb constructions are less likely to offend or upset people, but for certain verbs/situations the opposite may be true. See Diathesis and Active and Passive for more detailed explanations and examples.

Vocals- a letter or speech sound in speech produced by an open vocal tract and involving little or no friction or restriction of sound through the mouth or airway. Speech is essentially made up of vowels and consonants, where consonants are letters/sounds implying a restriction or friction of sound. Vowels usually form the base or nucleus of the syllable. Vowels are generally thought of as the letters a and i or u in English, although many other sounds are also vowels, such as z), etc. 'vowel' therefore varies. The letters a and i or u are generally considered purely vowels to distinguish vowels from consonants in the English alphabet, although beyond this limited context 'y' is certainly considered to be a vowel represented by a single letter.

Vowel change– a change in the sound of vowel pronunciation, usually when describing a group's language, and its change over time, for example the 'Great Vowel Shift' which introduced longer vowels into modern times and changed the style of shorter vowels into the Middle Ages. We can also refer to the vowel change in connection with the dialect change when someone lives for a period in another region with different vowel sounds in the local language.

Voice– Latin for voice, which occurs in English in particular in the expression “vox pop”.

the voice of pop/the voice of the people– “vox pop” means popular opinion, derived from the 15th century Latin “vox populi” (voice of the people), typically used and specifically referring to quick interviews on the street by radio/television stations of members of the public named in the Media as "man-in-the-street interview", often pluralized to "vox pops". Cynics might reasonably claim that a significant and increasing proportion of "news" and "current affairs" shows contain utterly meaningless and unthinking vox pop presented as if they were objective and wise commentary on the matter at hand.

Wort– a single linguistic or written unit. Despite this simple definition, the word "word" is an intriguing concept to define and one that gives rise to considerable debate. The modern Oxford English Dictionary provides these two basic definitions for the essential grammatical meaning of "word": "...both sides when written or printed." [or separately] "...a single conceptual unit distinct from language, comprising inflectional and variant forms". There are other official dictionary definitions of the word 'word' when used in different contexts, for example when used as: 'word in the street' (where 'word' refers to gossip and arguments etc.); "Don't create a word" (where "a word" refers to the entire thread, including the smallest element, such as a single letter or number); "Give me your word" (word equivalent to a promise or agreement); "Just say the word" (where "word" means "go ahead," "permission," or "command"); and verb forms such as "the best way to write a letter" (where the word means "to write" or "to stylize"). Traditionally, printed dictionaries were viewed as the arbiters of words, so only the "words" listed and defined in printed dictionaries were "proper words". In more enlightened times, however, dictionaries were increasingly viewed as records and collections of words that are widely used in everyday conversation and in the writings of different people, regardless of what the dictionaries contain. This means that words change, evolve and appear in real language much earlier than in dictionaries. Dictionaries, of course, record and organize the words used, but they do not dictate or create new words. Normal people do that.

Zeugma- where a word is applied to two different things in the same sentence, often to confusing, inappropriate, or amusing effect. Lord Byron is known for his playful use of zeugma, for example the wonderful line in his epic poem Don Juan: "Seville is a pleasant city, famous for oranges and women..."

What about a language's rules for combining words to form acceptable ones?

Syntax. A language's rules for combining words to form acceptable phrases and sentences. Semantics. The meaning of words and phrases in a specific language. pragmatic.

What does the way words combine to form acceptable phrases and sentences mean?

Syntax, the arrangement of words in sentences, clauses and phrases, and the study of sentence formation and the relationship of its parts.

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Which term refers to the process by which we derive the meaning of morphemes and words?

Semanticsrefers to the process by which we derive the meaning of morphemes and words. Syntax refers to the way words are organized into sentences (Chomsky, 1965; Fernández & Cairns, 2011).

Which of the following are parts of language?

Linguists have identified five basic components (Phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics) in several languages.


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